provide a response for both posts with reference. I have also attached a sample example of a response. Please separate the responses with its own post. 150 words each responses with reference
Part 1 Post
Age-related Neurological Changes
Aging results to various changes in both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. As an individual age, the brain and other organs of the nervous system undergo various natural changes. Both the brain and the spinal cord become atrophied; thus, losing nerve cells and weight (MedPlus, 2020). Additionally, the nerves cells (neurons) begin to pass messages slowly. As an individual is aging, he or she losses approximately 10,000 nerve cells every day (MedPlus, 2020). While there is a physiological loss of all cell types in the body as an aging process, nerve cells do not reproduce; therefore, the lost cells are never replaced. This loss of nerve cells affects the entire nervous system due to decreased functioning of the nervous system (MedPlus, 2020). For example, the function of neurotransmitters is affected as a result of decreasing number of nerve cells in different parts of the brain and other organs of the nervous system. Age-related physiological changes in the central nervous system include sensory motor changes, altered neuroendocrine, and reticular activating system (RAS) (Module 6 Lecture Materials and Resources).
These age-related neurologic changes involve hippocampus changes, such as synapse loss in the neurons, structural changes, diminished glucose metabolism, alteration of neuroglia cells, and decreased microvascular integrity. Additionally, there is reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turnover (Module 6 Lecture Materials and Resources). Other age-related physiologic changes in the nervous system are neurochemical and neurodegenerative changes in the cerebellum. These age-related changes may be contributed by accumulation of waste products and other chemicals such as beta amyloid that result from the breakdown of neurons. This may lead to formation of abnormal changes called tangles and plaques in the brain (Module 6 Lecture Materials and Resources).The changes in the peripheral nervous system include reduction or loss of sensation and reflexes. These changes in the peripheral nervous system may lead to movement problems. Lower memory and thinking are part of normal aging. The rate of nerve cell degeneration determines how memory and thinking of an individual diminishes.
Delirium and Dementia
Delirium is a mental health condition that presents as a disturbance of attention (diminished awareness of a familiar environment) and reduced ability to shift, focus, or sustain attention. The common cognitive changes associated with delirium include disorientation, poor memory, speech disturbance (Fong, Davis, Growdon, Albuquerque, & Inouye, 2015). In most cases, the consent of disturbance is often rapid (hours to days), but usually fluctuates over the course of the day. The most common causes of delirium are associated to risk factors such as advanced age, diseases affecting the central nervous system, infection, hypoalbuminemia, polypharmacy, history of trauma, electrolyte imbalances, genitourinary and gastrointestinal disorders, sensory changes, and cardiopulmonary disorders.
Dementia is a term for collective neurologic or cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), vascular dementia (VaD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). It is a syndrome of gradual, progressive cognitive decline. Presents through compromised multiple cognitive domains due to alteration of intellectual function and memory. The main difference between these two conditions is that delirium occurs abruptly its symptoms may fluctuate during the day while dementia develops overtime with gradual progression of cognitive decline (Fong et al., 2015). Despite these differences, delirium and dementia have similar symptoms, such as agitation, confusion, and delusion.