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Age-related Neurological Changes

provide a response for both posts with reference. I have also attached a sample example of a response. Please separate the responses with its own post. 150 words each responses with reference

Part 1 Post

Age-related Neurological Changes

Aging results to various changes in both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. As an individual age, the brain and other organs of the nervous system undergo various natural changes. Both the brain and the spinal cord become atrophied; thus, losing nerve cells and weight (MedPlus, 2020). Additionally, the nerves cells (neurons) begin to pass messages slowly. As an individual is aging, he or she losses approximately 10,000 nerve cells every day (MedPlus, 2020). While there is a physiological loss of all cell types in the body as an aging process, nerve cells do not reproduce; therefore, the lost cells are never replaced. This loss of nerve cells affects the entire nervous system due to decreased functioning of the nervous system (MedPlus, 2020). For example, the function of neurotransmitters is affected as a result of decreasing number of nerve cells in different parts of the brain and other organs of the nervous system. Age-related physiological changes in the central nervous system include sensory motor changes, altered neuroendocrine, and reticular activating system (RAS) (Module 6 Lecture Materials and Resources).

These age-related neurologic changes involve hippocampus changes, such as synapse loss in the neurons, structural changes, diminished glucose metabolism, alteration of neuroglia cells, and decreased microvascular integrity. Additionally, there is reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turnover (Module 6 Lecture Materials and Resources). Other age-related physiologic changes in the nervous system are neurochemical and neurodegenerative changes in the cerebellum. These age-related changes may be contributed by accumulation of waste products and other chemicals such as beta amyloid that result from the breakdown of neurons. This may lead to formation of abnormal changes called tangles and plaques in the brain (Module 6 Lecture Materials and Resources).The changes in the peripheral nervous system include reduction or loss of sensation and reflexes. These changes in the peripheral nervous system may lead to movement problems. Lower memory and thinking are part of normal aging. The rate of nerve cell degeneration determines how memory and thinking of an individual diminishes.

Delirium and Dementia

Delirium is a mental health condition that presents as a disturbance of attention (diminished awareness of a familiar environment) and reduced ability to shift, focus, or sustain attention. The common cognitive changes associated with delirium include disorientation, poor memory, speech disturbance (Fong, Davis, Growdon, Albuquerque, & Inouye, 2015). In most cases, the consent of disturbance is often rapid (hours to days), but usually fluctuates over the course of the day. The most common causes of delirium are associated to risk factors such as advanced age, diseases affecting the central nervous system, infection, hypoalbuminemia, polypharmacy, history of trauma, electrolyte imbalances, genitourinary and gastrointestinal disorders, sensory changes, and cardiopulmonary disorders.

Dementia is a term for collective neurologic or cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), vascular dementia (VaD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). It is a syndrome of gradual, progressive cognitive decline. Presents through compromised multiple cognitive domains due to alteration of intellectual function and memory. The main difference between these two conditions is that delirium occurs abruptly its symptoms may fluctuate during the day while dementia develops overtime with gradual progression of cognitive decline (Fong et al., 2015). Despite these differences, delirium and dementia have similar symptoms, such as agitation, confusion, and delusion.

Sample Solution

the assignment with his or her students is often missed. After grading assignments, teachers will often send them back to the students with all of the corrections made, rather than sitting down with a student and going over the corrections face-to-face. As a result, students will try to go over the corrections themselves. Also, technology can limit a student’s ability to think critically and form their own ideas. With easy access to the Internet, students have the ability to find answers to questions without having to think about them at all. Although not all students take advantage of the Internet in this way, the fact that technology allows students to learn in this fashion defeats the whole purpose of critical thinking. Finally, overuse of technology in the classroom can affect the quality of the students’ work without technology. For example, note-taking has moved away from pencil and paper to laptop and keyboard. As a result, students’ penmanship can be distorted, and their spelling and grammar skills may be weakened due to use of autocorrect. Although technology may seem to positively impact a student’s ability to learn, it actually can have a negative impact. Not only does the use of technology threaten a student’s ability to learn, but it also poses many physical and mental health issues. For example, due to excessive amounts of sitting and studying from devices, students can suffer from head and back pain, which can also affect a student’s healthy sleep cycle. Constant staring at a screen can also damage a student’s eyesight, weakening it in the future. When a student is using a device to work on an essay or a research study for a long period of time, he or she is putting his or her body in serious bodily danger that can have drastic effects in the future. Technology can also negatively impact one’s memory. Today student can use technology to store all notes, books, and homework they need to study. However, students tend to rely on their devices to remember new and old information for them to the point where they cannot remember easy information for themselves. Technology can also harm a student’s mental health just as drastically as his or her physical health. For example, excessive amounts of time using tec
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