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Airport Departure Delays

analyze a real-world large data set involving flight data and use the advanced features of ggplot to produce graphs of this data.

In previous modules, the data used in your projects came from small built-in R data sets or were generated by using probability distributions. We are now ready to use real-world, not manufactured, data. The data set nycflights13 contains data collected on domestic flights out of New York City in 2013. It contains 336,776 records, each with 19 variables. This is a big data set.

Analyze the nycflights13 data to determine which day of the week has the longest average delay time. Do the delay times vary by airport? What about weekday?

If you have not done so already, use the directions given in Chapter 13 of this module’s readings to install the nycflights13 data set and the R tidyverse package.

Sample Solution

combination of the man’s fear and anxiety produces irony towards the representation of the spectres he is interconnected with in this environment. The spectre’s in this story try to control the signalman’s fate by representing the ideas of safety and warning. This can be proven through the symbolism of the red light, the bell, and the line “Halloa! Below there”. Each time the bell rings it alerts the man to be silent and carry out his duties as the train is passing through. Here, we see that the bell can symbolize the spirits warning the man to stand clear of the tracks as they want to prevent the same tragedy happening to the signalman. However, when the bell didn’t ring the man “looked out towards the red light light near the mouth of the tunnel”. This can prove that the red light symbolizes the spirits being the light that can guide the signalman away from his fate of death. Finally, each time the line “Halloa! Below there” is mentioned it is usually heard as a scream or cry for help. Therefore, this action can symbolize the spirits enforce this line into the signalman’s head so that he can use it for himself when it comes down to his fate carrying out. In significance, the spirits in this story are not meant to be seen as uncanny and frightening as they exceed the boundaries of this normalized perception. Despite the ironic representation of the spirits, the signalman instinctively chooses to perceive the spirits as eerie and dangerous. As the signalman questions the purpose of the spectre’s on page 80, it can be seen that he has a fear of the unknown which contributes to the way he perceives the supernatural. Also, this fear advances his troubles as he misinterprets the spirits to be adverse by distorting his mental state causing him harm and pain. This is significant because we start to see an alienation of the signalman’s mental world as he feels more insane, paranoid, and anxious. The emotional and mental destruction portrayed here causes a recognition of insanity which is where the ambivalent conflict of skepticism surfaces. The ambiguity in this story comes from the principle of the distinctive line between rationality and imagination. This is the root of the narrator’s skepticism which stems from the first encounter the signalman speaks of. After hearing this encounter, the narrator portrays man’s experience to be phantasmal as it can be seen as a figment of his imagination, “disease of the delicate nerves that minister to the function of the eye”. This shows how powerful this figure is in distorting his mind which is painful and tragic for the narrator to watch. This accentuates the belief that the only logical explanation to this is what seems to be insanity. Therefore, in intellectual terms, the narrator wants to reteach , or “compose”, the man’s mind in a pedagogical sense.

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