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Business Process.

Consider the following scenario:

JSM Manufacturing is a small, local company that manufactures personal protective equipment, such as surgical masks, gowns, and face shields. The company relies on a network of suppliers of raw materials, transportation providers, and for other required products and services. These vendors receive purchase orders from JSM for materials and services, and typically ship directly to JSM’s manufacturing facility. Invoices are sent to JSM’s accounts payable department for payment processing, which receives, verifies, and processes approximately 200 invoices per month.

JSM’s accounts payable department consists of one (1) person who is responsible for verifying the invoices before paying them.

When the accounts payable clerk receives a batch of invoices, typically in the form of a paper bills in the mail, she sorts them by vendor and purchase order number.

On Tuesday of every week, the accounts payable clerk meets with the purchasing department to review the bills with the purchase orders to verify the bills were for the correct items at the correct price. JSM purchasing department contacts the vendor to reconcile any differences (either to the purchase order or to the invoice, which would require the vendor to generate another invoice).

The accounts payable clerk meets with JSM receiving department every Wednesday to verify that the ordered items have indeed been received. The receiving department contacts the purchasing department of any discrepancies, and the purchasing department, in turn, contacts the vendor about the discrepancy. Again, reconciliation would require adjusting the purchase order, invoice, or both.

Finally, the accounts payable clerk processes the invoice for payment. Payments are always made on Fridays.

Note that invoices are received throughout the week and are sorted whenever the clerk has time to perform that task.
The process certainly has some issues. Vendors often complain about the length of time it takes for JSM to pay their bills. Also, since the onset of the CoVID-19 pandemic, the demand for JSM’s products has skyrocketed, requiring the company to find more suppliers to meet its demand for more raw materials, resulting in far more invoices arriving at the company every week.

As a result of these issues, JSM has hired you to access the business impact of the situation and see what could be done to improve the overall process.

The Assignment:

Business Process. (15 points)
a. List at least 3 issues with the current process. (10 pts)
b. Explain the impact of the existing process on operational efficiency. (5 pts)

Diagram the existing Process. (50 points).

a. Using a diagramming tool (Visio, Lucidchart, PowerPoint) model the existing process.

Use swim lanes to show process participants, and separators to show time scales. Remember to submit in PDF format. (50 pts)

  1. Metrics (15 points)
    a. Identify 3 measurements or metrics that could be put in place to measure the impact of

the existing process on operational efficiency. (15 pts)

  1. Process Improvements (20 points).

a. Discuss the changes that could be made to make the process more efficient. (10 pts) b. Explain how information systems could support those changes. Discuss what data the

systems should capture and what decisions the system could improve.

Sample Solution

he term. The construct of terrorism has been openly interpreted since 1794, when Maximilien de Robespierre labeled France’s Revolutionary government as the “Reign of Terror” and their use of the guillotine as terrorism (Kelkar, 2017). The international debate on the definition of terrorism began during the nineteenth century, as acts of terror spread throughout the world. Since the start of the debate, more than two hundred and sixty definitions of terrorism have been composed (Kelkar, 2017). The FBI defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (Bruce, 2013, p. 28). Yet, academic researchers, like Walter Lacqueur, use a broader definition for terrorism, calling it “the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective by targeting innocent people” (Bruce, 2013, p. 27). A standard definition of terrorism has been so difficult to determine that the United Nations has not reached an agreement on the definition, even after multiple attempts (Bruce, 2013). Despite this challenge, the varying definitions of terrorism often have common elements including the demonstration of aggression against noncombatants, or civilians, and actions taken with the intent to influence and change a populations behavior to benefit the interests of the terrorist and/or terrorist organization (Victoroff, 2005). Each definition of terrorism employs various combinations of these elements in order to achieve an organizations specific goal and match their motivations. Today, terrorism is occurring at an extremely high rate when compared to historical trends. Compared to the decade following the September 11th attacks, the previous decade had one-third the frequency and lethality of terrorist attacks worldwide (Rivinius, 2018). In the United States, the number of terrorist attacks that took place in 2017 increased from 2016 only by one incident, however, the number of leth
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