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Business; stages of the policy cycle

  1. List and define the stages of the policy cycle including what and who is involved. Explain how environmental health research is a component of the policy cycle. How does environmental health research contribute to the implementation of sound environmental policies?
  2. Discuss at least three different agents (not diseases) of occupationally associated diseases and injuries. For each one, discuss the industries associated with them, the work settings, and the types of adverse health outcomes. What is being done in these industries to prevent them?
  3. Why do we need to be concerned about injuries? Discuss the significance of unintentional injuries for morbidity and mortality globally and in the United States. How do unintentional injuries rank in comparison with other causes of mortality? Describe the potential economic, social, and emotional costs of unintentional injuries.
  4. Discuss drinking water in the United States. Where does the water come from? Describe the four stages of water treatment. Which step is critical for deactivation of potential pathogens? What potential pathogens are deactivated by this step and which have the potential to survive (give specific organisms)? What agency regulates drinking water in the U.S.?
  5. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollutants. Choose an environmental pollutant to discuss. How are children exposed to it and what health effects can it cause? Why are children more susceptible? How strong is the evidence for this as a cause of disease? What can you do to advocate for children’s rights involving this pollutant (this must be realistically capable)?
  6. Describe waste management in the U.S. What are the methods for reduction of wastes? What are benefits and hazards associated with the different methods for waste management? How does waste in the U.S. affect developing countries?
  7. What are human health effects due to climate change? What chronic and communicable diseases are increasing due to climate change? What steps can be taken as a population (not individual) to reduce climate change due to anthropogenic sources? How do international treaties address global climate change?
  8. Discuss microbial sources of foodborne illness and the risk factors for foodborne illness. Describe methods used for the prevention of foodborne illnesses and what type of food microorganisms they can kill. In your discussion, include viruses vs. bacteria vs. worms vs. other agents and how they vary.

Sample Solution

“At the outbreak of the epidemic there was no city Board of Health in existence. The last board had been totally ineffective since it lacked sufficient authority to enforce its rules and regulations, and had been denied support by the city authorities” (Carrigan, 1853). No one was trained enough nor had been exposed to yellow fever enough to understand the specific cause and protection methods. People were left in the dark with the true severity of the infection and well as close by cases. “When informed of the first cases of yellow fever that appear in summer, the newspaper press almost invariably denies the truth of the reports, and, not unfrequently, showers upon the heads of those whose duty it is to pronounce upon the character of the prevailing disease, volumes of abuse and ridicule. If the cases multiply and the sign of the times plainly indiare the approach of an epidemic, the able editors of our valuable daily journals, under what i must pronounce a most erroneous impression of their duty to the public, studiously endeavour to conceal or suppress the true state of affairs” (Fenner, 2008). Newspapers were hesitant to release stories regarding yellow fever because businesses feared that word of an epidemic would cause a quarantine to be placed on the city and trade would suffer. In their defense, there was no trained physicians that could properly treat yellow fever so it became difficult to write a story solely based on guesses. “A cartoon posted in the Daily Item mocked the handling of fever cases in New Orleans by depicting sufferers from non-fever maladies, like a toothache and a broken arm, as yellow fever cases according to the Board of Health. By doing so, the newspaper vocalized its disapproval of the Louisiana Board of Health’s handling of fever cases and the medical knowledge of the board’s employed physicians” (Runge, 2013). People were aggravated with the lack of awareness and accuracy from journals, so they found comic relief in making fun of them. “Journals began to comment on the pestilence, blaming the city council and its do-nothing policy. Under tremendous pressure from public opinion and urged on by the Mayer, the Council on july 25 finally appointed a Board of Health” (Carrigan, 1853). Pathophysiology “The phenomenon of yellow fever was like a jigsaw puzzle with a number of missing pieces. Until those pieces were discovered the picture remained distorted until the discovery of the insect vector, the irregular spread of the pestilence presented a knotty problem in logic to speculative minds” (Carrigan, 1853). U.S Army surgeon Major Walter Reed made the first important contribution to the field of medicine with his study of yellow fever. During his time of service in the Spanish-American war, Reed found soldiers dying from both yellow fever and malaria. Unsure of the cause, Reed set out to appoint a commission to investi
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