Essay Analysis

What closely related problems, ideas, or solutions will you build on and use in your research? What contribution do you expect your research to make to the literature?

Here is the articles which are similar to mine and I want you to use:

https://academic.oup.com/rpd/article/157/4/536/1601922
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037942/

Sample Solution

Oryx and Crake

1.

Question:

What happened in the chapters of Oryx and Crake that you read this week? (69-144)

Note:

This does not need to be a formal or well-edited summary. Think of it like a “brain dump.” Just write down all the things you can remember.
Or if it’s faster, you could copy and paste chapter summaries you wrote in your notes.
To earn full credit, your summary/brain dump should be:

About 10-12 sentences,
Fairly complete (cover the main things that happen in the assigned chapters), and
Accurate and clear.
Question 2:

What are 3 parts of the book that relate to one or more of the Essay #3 prompts, and
How do these parts of the book relate to at least one of the prompts?
Reminder of the prompt options:

In what way is genetic modification of humans potentially dangerous or unpredictable? What characters or events does Oryx and Crake use to show that genetic modification of humans is dangerous or unpredictable?
Why is society’s obsession with youth (or beauty) dangerous or unhealthy? What characters or events does Oryx and Crake use to show the negative impact of an obsession with youth or beauty?
Why is storytelling so important to society? What characters or events does Oryx and Crake use to show the importance of storytelling?
Should Snowman protect the Crakers and allow them to thrive as the new “human species” of this planet, or should he join the remaining humans and help them rebuild society (leaving the Crakers to die)? Why?
To earn full credit:

You should briefly summarize 3 parts of the book (1-3 sentences each), and
Briefly explain how each part of the book you summarized relates to one of the prompts (1-3 sentences each).
For a total of 6-18 sentences.

Sample Solution

Essay Analysis

After reading the GE Mini-case, please post your thoughts below on the following questions:

What kind of diversification is GE pursuing? What are the sources of value creation with this type of diversification?
After leaving GE, Jeffrey Immelt stated in 2018: “The notion of plugging financial services and industrial companies together, maybe it was a good idea at a point in time, but it is a uniquely bad idea now.” To what is Immelt referring? Why does he think this is a bad idea? Do you agree? Why or why not?
In the bestseller Good to Great, Jim Collins advances the hypothesis that the greatness of a leader is known only after the leader has departed. The business press has celebrated Jack Welch as the greatest CEO of the last century. After reading this MiniCase, do you agree with Collins’ strategic leadership hypothesis? Why or why not? Note: When interviewed in 2018 about the GE situation, Jack Welch had this to say: “I give myself an A for the operation of GE, but an F for my choice of successor.”

Sample Solution

Essay Analysis

Read the following opinion article published online in The McGill Journal of Political Studies.
Write a 400-500 word essay-style response with a thesis that addresses these connected questions:
What have your thoughts been on racism and systemic racism with regards to the COVID-19 epidemic in Canada? Reflecting on your thoughts, what do you notice about (a) the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on racialized communities (b) bias and stereotypes in the Canadian health care system (c) whether or not it is necessary and important to collect data that tracks race and socio-demographic information OR (d) personal experience (or experiences of family members) of racism and/or systemic racism during the pandemic?

To answer this, think about what you have thought, felt and experienced while being in this unusual time and how it has been different or similar from previous experiences. To help keep your response focused, choose just ONE of the (a) – (d) options given in the question.

Sample Solution

Essay Analysis

Part One:
Think about an issue at your current place of practice. What is that issue and how would you submit a research
proposal?
Part Two:
Identify a policy/procedure at your workplace that you would like to improve through evidence-based research
or discuss one that has been improved because of evidence based research.

Sample Solution

Essay Analysis

These are the instructions for your individual essay (subject to revision for clarity). The original due
date was November 15, 2020, but you may have until November 29, 2020 to complete this
assignment if you would like.
You will write between 1500-2000 words for the main body of the essay. In addition, you will
provide a bibliography which must include at least three scholarly sources used in your analysis of
the sector, the organization and/or the program, product or service you’re analysing. The essay may
refer to and/or will include other sources of information, including your team’s one-page SWOT
summary, your Data Collection forms, your empathy maps, the signed waivers you collected from
your interviewees, as well as videos, news items or industry reports that you refer to in your essay.
You will also attach four appendices (see below).
Structure of the essay:
I recommend using the following structure for your descriptive or expository essay but you are free
to adapt this to fit your own approach. **Note: The ACM Librarian, Paulina Rousseau, will run a
workshop on November 10 to review how to find scholarly articles in the U of T library (online) and
also to review how to use APA or Chicago formatting guidelines. The workshop will take place and
be recorded on Zoom, with a link to the recording provided in the course quercus after November
10.
Part One of the essay:
• Introduction: summarize what you will do in the paper. Even though it comes first in the
essay, you will write this introduction last! (100-150 words)
• Write a brief description of the organization you are analysing (200 words) including two or
three highlights that are relevant to the product, program or service you’re analysing; use intext citations to identify the sources of your information, based on your group’s SWOT
analysis.
o As part of understanding how to analyse arts and media organizations (whether these
are for-profit, non-profit or hybrid), you have already conducted a SWOT in your
small group (using publicly available online material and academic or industry reports
available through the U of T library). You have identified the strengths and
weaknesses of one arts or media organization’s market(s), unique value proposition,
channels (distribution), general customer relationships, revenue streams, resources,
activities and cost-structures (cost-driven vs added-value-driven), in your small
group. You have also (or are about to) present(ed) these elements in your team’s
SWOT video. This information helps to provide the foundation for your essay and
can be drawn on to write the description of your organization. Don’t forget to cite
the sources in your essay that were used for the SWOT in your bibliography!
• Write a brief description and highlights of the product, service or program that you are
analysing for your essay, including why you are interested in it (about 100 words)
• Write a brief description of an imaginary scenario related to the product, service or program
that you are analyzing (about 150 words). Sample scenarios might look something like this:
o EX. 1: Your media company is launching a new series on Netflix that they hope will
attract an inter-generational audience. It is the story of many generations of one
family living under one roof in Scarborough, Ontario, and reflects the concerns,
misunderstandings and joys of grandparents who are immigrants; parents who work
too many hours as professionals; and children who are secondary and post-secondary
UTSC VPAA10 2020 Individual Essay Instructions
November 2, 2020 REVISED
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students. Friends, neighbours and relatives—not to mention world events—
complicate things for all the generations, whether they’re in Scarborough or on the
other side of the world. In your scenario, answer questions such as:
§ What would attract someone to watch this series?
§ What is the promotional strategy required to attract the attention of someone
who might be interested in the series?
§ Where will people watch this series?
§ In what ways will they use social media to discuss it?
o EX. 2: The Gates Foundation is researching whether and how the arts can help with
improving mental health during global pandemics such as COVID-19. So far, they
have conducted one preliminary study in the U.S.A., and are now interested in
conducting another study in Scarborough, Ontario, at UTSC. In your scenario,
answer questions such as:
§ What would attract someone to participate in this study?
§ What are the promotional and marketing strategies needed to convince people
in the neighbourhood (especially university students) to participate?
§ Where will the study take place (online? In person?)
§ In what ways will social media be used to promote the study?
• Find and summarize three scholarly references that examine something similar to the
products, services or programs that you’re interested in, or that looks at the kind of
organization that you’re studying, or that says something about the broader field of arts,
culture and media that you think will help you to better understand something about the
product or program or service you’re describing (about 250 words). You can use class
readings if you wish, except for the excerpts from Five Good Ideas; make sure they’re scholarly
references and not simply news items.
Part Two of the Essay: Data Collection & Analysis
• Gather some original research using the Data Collection Form provided. Point form notes
(handwritten or typed) are fine. You will gather this information by going through a journey
mapping exercise yourself (either in the live sessions on October 27 or November 3 or by
using the recording of the live session on November 3 as a reference). You will then conduct
a similar journey mapping exercise with three friends or family members using a separate
form for each participant. Before you do this, please use the draft email below and adapt it
for your own purposes so that you can email your three friends or family to ask them to
participate in the interview and journey mapping process. Please make sure to have them
sign the waiver below before or during the interviews. Once you have completed your four
interviews, save the four forms as a PDF to attach as an appendix to the essay. (Note: do
not report the names of the people you have spoken to; please mask their identities as
well as your own by calling them “Participant 1”; “Participant 2”, etc. This includes
you.) Save the four signed waivers as a PDF and include these as another appendix to the
essay; these signed waivers will identify who the participants were but will not identify what
they answered during your data collection interview. Notice that the information you are
gathering is NOT about your product, program or service. The information is much more
general than that.
• Analysis 1: Based on the information you gathered in your Data Collection Forms, you will
develop an empathy map for at least one participant (about 100 words per interviewee). See
the sample empathy map below. Empathy maps answer questions about what someone
UTSC VPAA10 2020 Individual Essay Instructions
November 2, 2020 REVISED
3
“thinks & feels; sees; says & does; hears” and what their “pain” points, “joy” points, and
general experiences and expectations are. To generate your empathy map, you can simply fill
in point-form answers right on your version of this empathy map for your participant(s).
From: Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation. Hoboken: John Wiley
& Sons, p. 130.
• Analysis 2: In the body of the essay, summarize the information gathered on your Data
Collection Form for yourself and at least three others (about 500 words). I recommend using
the following questions to help you with undertake this analysis; these questions were
developed in consultation with the Laboratory for Artistic Intelligence:
• How many research participants did you do this exercise with? Please summarize
their demographic information by participant.
• In general, for you, how did the different responses compare?
• What similarities or patterns did you notice between the participant responses?
• Were there any differences between them? If yes, what were those differences?
• Do you have any other interesting observations to add?
• Analysis 3: Then, make the link between your analysis of the data collection you have done
in this Part of the essay and your description of the program, product or service that you
examined in Part 1 of the essay (100-200 words). To do this, imagine whether and why one
or more of the participants you surveyed might be interested in the product, service or
program you described in Part One of the essay. Don’t identify the person by name, just by
Participant number.
• Conclusion (about 100 words) including any new questions that arose during your analysis.
In addition to the content above (a total of about 1500-2000 words), you will add your:
• Bibliography
• Appendices:
o One-page SWOT summary from your group project, revised as needed for this
paper
o Revised recruitment email (as you used it to reach out to your friends and family)
o Up to four Data Collection Forms (one per participant), filled in by you and the
anonymized participants, assembled as one PDF attached to the paper
UTSC VPAA10 2020 Individual Essay Instructions
November 2, 2020 REVISED
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o Signed waivers from yourself and your three participants in the Data Collection
(journey-mapping) exercise, assembled as one PDF attached to the paper
Resources for data collection and essay writing:
Journey mapping exercises on October 27 & November 3, 2020
During the live sessions on Tuesday, October 27 and November 3, Helen Yung and Ali Pourmand
will pilot (October 27) and then conduct a demonstration (November 3) of the form we have
developed together, that you will use to collect information (including journey maps) from yourself
and three other people (friends or family over 18). The Data Collection Form is attached to these
instructions. The core question that they are investigating is to understand what kinds of cultural and
aesthetic activities people are involved in during COVID times. The Bb Collaborate sessions will be
recorded and uploaded to quercus as usual, so that all students can review the process.
All of us in the live session on November 3 will go through the mapping exercise in breakout groups
to respond to the questions on the form. That means that those who attend November 3 will already
have completed one of their forms.
How to write an essay:
For more information on how to write an essay, see the resources provided in the library and
through the Writing Centre (don’t forget that Paulina Rousseau will run a workshop on November
10 reviewing how to search for articles and how to use formatting guidelines in your essay):
https://guides.library.utoronto.ca/citing
https://utsc.utoronto.ca/twc/
For more options and resources about essay structures and citation guides, you can also look
through the resources found at Purdue Owl:
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/resources.html
Draft recruitment email (please revise to suit your purposes and include the revision as an appendix):
As part of my VPAA10 course: Introduction to Arts and Media Management, I have been learning
how to analyse arts and media organizations (including for-profit, non-profit or hybrid). In my small
group of five people, I have conducted an analysis of __ [arts or media organization]
to identify its market(s), unique value proposition, distribution channels, revenue streams, resources,
activities and cost-structures. I now need to research specific customer relationships by developing
customer and client personas and mapping a few customer or client pain points, joy points, and
general audience experiences and expectations. I have gone through the questions involved in this
exercise myself, and would like to invite you to participate, as a friend or family member who shares
interests in arts and media. The information I collect will not be identified by your name or by our
relationship. I will then incorporate my final version of my results in my own individual essay about
the organization. All the information gathered will be kept in confidence and destroyed at the end of
the course (December 2020). I’d really appreciate it if you could spend 15-20 minutes with me to be
involved in a conversation for this project.
UTSC VPAA10 2020 Individual Essay Instructions
November 2, 2020 REVISED
5
Waiver for participants to sign (revise and complete and sign one for each participant including yourself):
As part of my VPAA10 course: Introduction to Arts and Media Management, I have been learning how to
analyse arts and media organizations (including for-profit, non-profit or hybrid). In my small group of five
people, I have conducted an analysis of __ [arts or media organization] to identify its
market(s), unique value proposition, distribution channels, revenue streams, resources, activities and coststructures. I am now researching specific customer relationships by developing customer and client personas
and mapping a few customer or client pain points, joy points, and general audience experiences and
expectations.
I have gone through the questions involved in this exercise myself, and invite you to participate, as a friend or
family member who shares interests in arts and media. The information I collect will not be identified by your
name or by our relationship and will be used for course discussions and in my individual essay. If you give
your permission below, the summary of the information I collect and use in my essay may also be
anonymously aggregated with others in the class project and provided to Helen Yung of the Laboratory for
Artistic Intelligence (https://artisticintelligence.com/) as part of an examination of the cultural and aesthetic
needs of the general public in COVID times. If you have any concerns about the project or your rights as a
participant, please feel free to contact my course instructor, Dr. MaryElizabeth Luka
([email protected]), and/or the Research Oversight and Compliance Office – Human
Research Ethics Program at [email protected] or 416-946-3273.
It will take about 15-20 minutes to go through the journey-mapping questions with me. We will have a phone
or online conversation. I may record the conversation, only so that I can refer to it for accuracy afterwards.
All the information gathered will be kept in confidence and destroyed at the end of the course (December
2020). I will interview three people in total, and my classmates are also interviewing three people each. There
should be no foreseeable risks, harms or inconveniences to you. You may find that you discover something
valuable about your own likes and dislikes.
Your participation is voluntary; i.e. you can decline to participate, or withdraw at any time, or decline to
answer any question or participate in any part of the discussion, all without negative consequences. There is
no compensation for participation. Once you have answered the questions, I will anonymize and combine
your responses with my other results to develop a combined “persona” (a description of key demographics as
a customer or client) and compare these to that of my classmates, at which point, I won’t be able to separate
out your information from that of the others in the study. The University of Toronto research ethics office
may have confidential access to the data collected to help ensure participant protection procedures are
followed in this study.

Sample Solution

The entropy of a substance

Processes have a natural tendency to occur in one direction under a given set of conditions. _ processes happen under the indicated conditions; they may occur quickly or slowly, but the process does occur. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, _ take place, no matter how long you wait, unless it is “driven” by the continual input of _ from an external source. The spontaneity of a process is not correlated to the _ of the process. A process that is spontaneous in one direction under a particular set of conditions is nonspontaneous in the _ direction. Other processes are spontaneous in only _ direction.

Knowing the _ change alone does not make it possible to predict the conditions under which a process will occur spontaneously. An important factor in determining the spontaneity of a process is the extent to which it changes the dispersal or distribution of matter and/or _. _ is a measure of the degree of disorder or randomness in a system. Entropy is a measure of the dispersal of a system’s energy, _ when there are more energetically equivalent ways to arrange the components of that system. The _ law of thermodynamics states that spontaneous processes always result in an overall _ in entropy, S, of the _. The tendency toward disorder is a statistical probability. The mathematical definition of entropy is given by
S=k lnW
where k is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 × 10−23J/K) and W is the number of energetically equivalent arrangements (microstates) possible for the system. Equivalent microstates form a _
; the most probable macrostate is the one containing the highest number of __.

The entropy of a substance is influenced by the structure of the particles (atoms or molecules) that comprise the substance. Heavier atoms possess _ entropy at a given temperature than lighter atoms, For molecules, greater numbers of _ increase the number of ways in which the molecules can vibrate and thus the number of possible microstates and the entropy of the system. Compared to a pure substance, in which all particles are identical, the entropy of a mixture of two or more different particle types is _. This is because of the additional orientations and interactions that are possible in a system comprised of _ components.

A positive value for ΔS of a process, indicating an increase in entropy, results when there is
• a phase change from solid to _,
• a phase change from solid or liquid to _
,
• the dissolution of a _ into an aqueous solution,
• an _
in temperature within a phase, or
• an __ in the number of gas particles.

The _ law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is _. Experimental measurements of entropy can be used to determine absolute values of entropy based on the zero point established by the third law. __ molar entropies for substances are measured at 1 bar and 298 K. They can be used to calculate the standard entropy change for chemical reactions and phase changes.

Entropy is a _ function so its change depends only upon the initial and final states of a system.
To determine if a process is _
, you can determine the overall entropy change
ΔSsurr is calculated as . The entropy change of the surroundings is inversely proportional to the _. The effect of the enthalpy change of the system on the entropy of the surroundings is _ at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. Negative ΔSrxn values can be offset by large increases in ΔSsurr, making ΔSuniv _ overall. For objects at different temperatures, _ flows from the hotter to the cooler object. This is always observed to occur spontaneously.

ΔSuniv is positive for all __ processes.

  1. Predict the sign of ΔS for these processes:
    a. 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l)
    b. H2O(l) → H2O(s)
    c. CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)
    d. CO2(s) → CO2(g)
    e. 2 C8H18(l) + 25 O2(g) → 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(l)

Calculate ΔS°, ΔSsurr and ΔSuniv 298 K for the reaction: 2 KClO3(s) → 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)

Gibbs free energy provides chemists with a way to determine if a process is spontaneous using only properties of the system. ΔG is meaningful only for changes in which the temperature and pressure remain _. These are the conditions under which most reactions are carried out in the laboratory, wherein the system is usually open to the atmosphere (constant pressure) and the process begins and ends at room temperature (after any heat added or liberated by the reaction has dissipated.) In a spontaneous change, Gibbs energy always decreases and never _. Once the free energy reaches its minimum possible value, all net change comes to a halt (equilibrium).

The free energy change is equal to the maximum amount of _ a system can perform on its surroundings while undergoing a spontaneous change. For a _ process, the free energy change represents the minimum amount of work that must be done on the system to carry out the process.

Free energy is a _ function. The standard free energy of formation is the change in free energy that occurs when 1 mol of a substance in its standard state is formed from the component _ in their standard states.

The standard free energy of a process can be calculated from standard free energies of __ of the reactants and products

or by using the standard enthalpy and entropy values for the process. .

When ΔG < 0, the process is spontaneous as written. When ΔG > 0, the process is nonspontaneous as written, but spontaneous in the reverse direction.
When ΔG = 0, the system is at __.

The sign of the _ change determines whether the reaction becomes more or less spontaneous as the temperature is raised. Because ΔH and ΔS usually do not vary greatly with temperature in the absence of a phase change, we can use tabulated values of ΔH° and ΔS° to calculate ΔG° at various temperatures, as long as no _ change occurs over the temperature range being considered.

ΔH ΔS ΔG = ΔH – TΔS Reaction characteristics
– + – __ at all temperatures

  • – + Nonspontaneous at all temperatures
    – – + or – Spontaneous at __ temperatures
    Nonspontaneous at high temperatures
  • + + or – Spontaneous at __ temperatures
    Nonspontaneous at low temperatures

Setting the Gibbs free-energy equation equal to __ gives an equation for the temperature at which the sign of ΔG changes.

Systems proceed spontaneously until they reach equilibrium (where ΔG = 0) because that is the most stable, _ energy situation for that system. Standard free-energy changes are related to the _ constant by The magnitude of the equilibrium constant is directly influenced by the tendency of a system to move toward __ entropy and seek the lowest energy state possible.

Value of K Value of ΔG Direction to proceed (spontaneously) to equilibrium
K > 1 ΔG < 0 forward direction K = 1 ΔG = 0 at equilibrium, no net change K < 1 ΔG > 0 reverse direction

To determine changes in free energy, ΔG, under __ conditions, scientists use

Sample Solution

Select safe, effective nursing interventions for the postpartum client and newborn.

Instructions
Create a teaching tool to promote breastfeeding. The material created to educate new mothers on breastfeeding will influence the mother’s decision to breastfeed, including duration, based on the quality and content of the teaching.

Assignment Requirements
Your teaching tool will be a trifold and must include this relevant content for a mother considering the risks and benefits of breastfeeding a newborn.

Explain how breast milk is formed in the mammary glands and the physiology of breast milk
Include two 2020 National Health Goals related to newborn nutrition to support breast feeding as the best choice. See the link below:
https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/maternal-infant-and-child-health
Discuss the advantages of breastfeeding related to immunities transferred to the newborn
Describe three additional benefits of breast feeding with supporting rationales
Include at least two supporting resources

Sample Solution