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Chemical structure of a relevant biomolecule.

Consider the biomolecule below:

Chemical structure of a relevant biomolecule.
Neatly draw this molecule. Name this molecule. Correctly number all of the carbon atoms in this molecule. Is the molecule a nitrogenous base, a nucleoside, a nucleotide, or a nucleic acid? List three chemical differences between this molecule and the compound thymidine.
In double helical DNA the nitrogenous base cytosine pairs with guanine. Draw the cytosine-guanine base pair. Draw the hydrogen bonds and number the atoms in your structure.
Imagine that you have just purified a new plasmid DNA from E. coli bacteria. You wish to map the restriction sites so you digest the DNA with various restriction endonucleases and measure the resulting sizes of the cut DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. Construct a restriction map for a circular plasmid DNA from the following gel data:

Schematic image of agarose gel electrophoresis separation of DNA fragments.
First, fill out the following table with the sizes of the bands in each lane:
Restriction endonuclease Fragment sizes (kilobases)
EcoRI
HaeII
PstI
EcoRI and HaeII
EcoRI and PstI
HaeII and PstI

Now, write the total number of bases in the center of the circle below and mark the relative positions of the restriction enzyme recognition sites. Label the distance between all of the sites in kilobases.

Schematic map of DNA plasmid for restriction mapping.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows for replication of double-stranded DNA between two single-stranded oligonucleotide primers. Assuming perfect doubling with each cycle, calculate the theoretical final concentration after 40 cycles of PCR from a single molecule of double-stranded DNA in a 0.1 mL volume.

Sample Solution

The UK needs to change the separate systems of income tax and National Insurance, with different sets of rules and exemptions, pointlessly increasing administration and compliance costs and making the system less transparent. NI is not a true social insurance scheme anymore; it is just another tax on earnings, which is added to the total revenue. The current tax and benefit system is unnecessarily complicated and convinces many people not to work or to work too little. Coherence requires first that the income tax system itself be sensibly structured. We need to move away from pointless complexities such as that which any amount between £100,000 and £123,700 means the personal allowance reduces and can actually mean that some people would get more net income if they earned less. Conclusion A good tax system is one which has primarily good taxes and fulfils most of the canons of taxation. It should be a balanced system where there are all types of taxes in the right proportion. The tax and benefit system should therefore be progressive, coherent, and designed to reflect income distribution and how different groups respond to work incentives. In the current system, there are a disarray of tax rates, a lack of a coherent vision of the tax base, and arbitrary discrimination across different types of economic activities. However, income tax does fundamentally treat the individual proportionately equal and helps provide items all benefit from. Ultimately, a good tax system is definitely better than none.
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