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Civil Rights of Citizens with Police Officers

You are the new police chief of a large city. The police department in your city has several complaints filed in the past year with Internal Affairs about certain police practices that some of the complaints allege police corruption. Corruption is a persistent problem in American policing, and it is essentially a misuse of authority for personal gain. It is not always easy to decipher what acts are classified as corruption. As a police chief, you are concerned that these complaints may turn into lawsuits against the city police department that could potentially cost millions of dollars. You have never had to deal with a lawsuit against the city police department at any of the previous departments that you commanded. You want to understand more about the nature of civil liability associated with policing.

Also, because you are a new police chief, you are trying to correct all the problems of corruption and these complaints, where the most prominent complaint is over police corruption. You know that police officers often go to lunch at a local family-owned restaurant in the city and receive free meals. You remember from your police academy classes and your AIU classes that you are not allowed to accept gifts from people while you are on duty; however, you know that many officers in your department accept free meals and gifts. While at lunch one day with some of your officers, you go to pay for you meal (which is valued at approximately $10.00), and one of the officers tells you that you do not have to pay for your meal at this restaurant. You pay for your meal but are concerned about the comment, so you decide to write a memo in APA format to your subordinates about the following issues and questions. You must write a paper of 2-3 pages outlining your thoughts about the issues and back up your thoughts with cited facts.
Should you pay for the meal or take the free meal? Why? Does it make a difference if you are on-duty or off-duty?
Is accepting a free meal ethical as a police officer?
What are the pros and cons in accepting the free meal? What are the pros and cons in not accepting the free meal?
Do you think that police officers should be held to a higher standard  than people in other professions?
Do you think that the police department can be sued over accepting free lunches?
What are some of the more common reasons why people sue a police department?
Can someone sue the police in a state and federal court? Explain.
What is the harm caused when someone sues a police department?
How can civil liability be reduced?

Sample Solution

Canada is a venerated nation in the North American landmass for its benevolent individuals, serene legislative issues, awesome untamed life, and significantly more. Be that as it may, for individuals who live outside this nation (second biggest regarding zone), the historical backdrop of this country may not be known or comprehended. So as to see how Canada turned into the nation it is presently, a review will be given. Canada has experienced a long history before its Constitution was patriated in 1982. Truth be told, it starts with the pre-contact native timetable. As indicated by Britannica.com, "North America's first people relocated from Asia, probably over a presently submerged land connect from Siberia to Alaska at some point around 12,000 years prior, during the last Ice Age; it has additionally been contended, in any case, that a few people showed up before, conceivably as long as 60,000 years back. Obscure quantities of individuals moved southward along the western edge of the North American ice top. The nearness of the ice, which for a period for all intents and purposes secured Canada, makes it sensible to expect that the southern scopes of North America were settled before Canada, and that the Inuit (Eskimo) who live in Canada's Arctic locales today were the remainder of the native people groups to arrive at Canada" (Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Corridor). Before Europeans came, around 12 dialects were created by the locals of the land, and these dialects were found in different societies and clans. In the end, the Iroquois Confederacy was sorted out, which comprised of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca people groups, and in the long run the Tuscarora. In these clans, and all through the Iroquois Confederacy, there was blend of agribusiness and chasing. Likewise, a few gatherings had a significant level of political, strict, social, and exchanging association. As indicated by Britannica.com, "The one trademark for all intents and purposes every one of the gatherings in precontact Canada shared was that they were self-administering and politically free" (Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Corridor). Despite the fact that the inevitable European pilgrims and trespassers portrayed the locals now and then as savages, this was induced out of obliviousness. The principal European wayfarers of the Canadian area were Vikings from Iceland, where they came to Labrador and Newfoundland. There are as yet the remaining parts of their settlements in these zones (Citizenship Canada). The locals and Vikings didn't get along so well at first, in spite of the fact that they inevitably exchanged together, as indicated by accessible proof (Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Corridor). After the Vikings in the long run fled the locale, John Cabot (otherwise known as Giovanni Caboti), an Italian guide happened upon this land. As indicated by the Canadian Encyclopedia, "Cabot and his team were the second gathering of Europeans to arrive at what might become Canada, chasing after Norse voyagers 1000 CE. Regardless of not yielding the exchange course Cabot sought after, the 1497 journey gave England a case to North America and information on a colossal new fishery" ("John Cabot"). Despite the fact that the Northwest Passage was not discovered, another piece of the British angling industry rose up out of this journey. It likewise started exchange between the locals and Europeans, however they were suspicious of one another. The first asserting of land in Canada was by the French. As expressed by Canada.ca, "Somewhere in the range of 1534 and 1542, Jacques Cartier made three journeys over the Atlantic, guaranteeing the land for King Francis I of France. Cartier heard two caught guides express the Iroquoian word kanata, signifying "town." By the 1550s, the name of Canada started showing up on maps" (Citizenship Canada). After these journeys, the main French settlement was built. As per Britannica, "… the French ruler, restless to challenge the cases of Spain in the New World, chose to set up a braced settlement. Inside and European governmental issues deferred the undertaking until 1541, when, under the order of Jean-François de La Rocque, sieur (master) de Roberval, Cartier came back to Stadacona and established Charlesbourg-Royal only northwest of Quebec" (Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Lobby). In spite of the fact that the French didn't find jewels and different valuable things in their new land, they despite everything made a case for the territory that they "found." Increasingly French settlement action proceeded for the sake of rivaling the Spanish. As indicated by Britannica, "In 1604 the French pilot Samuel de Champlain, under Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, who had gotten an award of the imposing business model, drove a gathering of pilgrims to Acadia. He picked as a site Dochet Island (Île Sainte-Croix) in the St. Croix River, on the present limit between the United States and Canada. However, the island demonstrated inadmissible, and in 1605 the state was moved over the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal (presently Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia)" (Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Corridor). In spite of the fact that the settlement was made as a hide exchanging post, its water frameworks (streams) were too hard to even think about getting through for the proficient conveyance of products. This settlement in the end moved, and they likewise engaged in associated fighting with the locals. As indicated by Discover Canada, "In 1608 Champlain constructed a fortification at what is currently Québec City. Champlain unified the province with the Algonquin, Montagnais, and Huron, notable adversaries of the Iroquois, a confederation of five (later six) First Nations who struggled with the French settlements for a century. The French and the Iroquois made harmony in 1701" (Citizenship Canada). Not at all like in the United States, the pioneers were increasingly deferential towards the locals, and even battled for the privileges of specific clans. In the consequent years, England, the Netherlands, and furthermore Scotland attempted to guarantee portions of Canada as their very own through exchange and fighting. The locals additionally got more interlaced in the matter of hide exchange, and even battled among clans for authority over exchange. Rivalry for the district was in exchange, land, and religion, with Catholics, Jesuits, and Protestants all needing to guarantee their own in this new land. Progressively intricate governments and unions were made to deal with the area with more noteworthy impact. With numerous nations competing for Canada at its new home, the British in the end made it another piece of its domain, with the French taking a littler bit in its overseeing and impact. Since 1848, mindful government was set up by the British, however Britain despite everything had control over the area until 1931, with the Statute of Westminster. It expressed that Canada had a similar position as the United Kingdom. With this affirmation, it took a few additional decades until Canada made its very own Constitution, in 1982. Be that as it may, with Canada presently being a parliamentary majority rule government and an established government, Queen Elizabeth II is still observed as the head of state (Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Corridor). Numerous subtleties couldn't be expounded on in this little space, yet I trust the movement of this extraordinary nation was clarified. Canada was first populated by socially, profoundly, strictly, and etymologically complex individuals, with 12 dialects and numerous clans. The Vikings were the primary Europeans to dare to the place that is known for Canada yet didn't remain for long. Italian John Cabot, contracted by Britain, investigated the district, and started an angling industry there. The French came before long, guaranteeing land as their own in the zone of Quebec. After New France was established, British, Dutch, and different pilgrims for different nations battled for the exchange, land, and even religion of this new spot. Coalitions with the locals were made for exchange and religion, and wars began to be battled under the standard of exchange, religion, and land ownage. In any case, after numerous exhausting fights between the French and British, Canada in the long run went under the influence of the British Empire, and stayed so until the Canadian Constitution was patriated in 1982. From that point on, Canada shook off the shackles of reliance on Britain, and has remained generally monetarily and legislatively stable since. Works Cited Nicholson, Norman L., and Roger D. Lobby. "Canada." Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 25 Dec. 2018, www.britannica.com/place/Canada/History.
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