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Conceptual Models and TheoriesIn the field of nursing

Conceptual Models & TheoriesIn the field of nursing, conceptual models are composed to address phenomena pertaining to human beings, health, the environment, and the field of nursing itself, (Fawcett, 2017). Conceptual models are significant in guiding practical nursing activities in advanced practice nursing as they contribute to advancing knowledge in patient care and related health care outcomes. An example of a conceptual model is Dorothy E. Johnson’s behavioral system model which views human beings to be behavioral systems in which we have patterns, repetitive practices, and purposeful acts of behavior that compose our lives, (Fawcett, 2017). Upon evaluation of this conceptual model, it proves that the ability to achieve balance in one’s behavioral system by means of maintaining, restoring, or attaining stability at the highest possible level for an individual is accessible. There are various subsystems of this behavioral system model that intertwine and affect the other subsystems, which is why the integrated approach of advanced practice nursing is essential for achieving patient-specific positive outcomes. As part of the guidelines for applying Johnson’s behavioral system model into nursing practice includes practice problems to anticipate and be prepared for real life instances; “practice problems of particular interest include all conditions in which behavior is a threat to health or in which illness is found”, (Fawcett, 2017, p. 28). By being well prepared on how to handle potential circumstances and situations in which may negatively impact our health or cause us illness, we will obtain better knowledge in the nursing community and have the upper hand to prevent or know how to handle such occurrences in a collective manner.
The role of the advanced practice nurse (APN) is specially trained and educated to work with patients of all ages, and through all aspects of their lives. The APN must also know and understand their patients’ behaviors and values, such as what they spend their time doing, where they spend their time and their learning styles, in order to get to know their patients on a personal level, (Hamric et al., 2014). Getting to know their patients on a personal level better enables the APN to fulfill their duty of establishing a channel of communication that resonates with their patient to facilitate compliance of the APN’s guidance and education regarding patient specific health promotion, and disease prevention in continuum of care related from studied theories and conceptual models such as Johnson’s behavioral system.
In addition to this conceptual model, a theory that relates to the application of advanced practice nursing includes modeling and role-modeling theory. Utilized by holistic nurses, this theory centers focus upon the patient and the patient’s “being” also known as their being present physically, mentally, socially, and spiritually, (Schultz, 2020). Similar to Johnson’s behavioral system, the goal of modeling and role-modeling theory is to achieve maximum integration and highest level of well-being of body, mind, and soul, (Schultz, 2020). In order to establish such a mindset, there must be a relationship between patient and health care provider to facilitate achievement and lead to optimal health care outcomes. This theory encompasses the idea that it takes both the health care provider and the patient to work together as the provider has knowledge and resources, and each individual patient is unique and can understand the ways that they need assistance. I believe this to be true as it relates to the APN role of collecting subjective information from the patient to then be able to provide knowledge from evidence-based practices to implement treatment plans, education, and recommendations to our patients.

Sample Solution

ackenzie, 2016). The difficult decision here is based on the total obdurate lack of uncertainty. The currency will continue to be volatile until a clear direction for exit is determined. This uncertainty is evidenced by HSBC who currently forecast that the pound will fall to $1.10 and parity against the Euro by the end of 2017 (Nag and Graham, 2016), whilst Mnyanda (2016) thinks a hard Brexit has already been priced in and the pound could rally 5%. Currency Hedging Considering these different views, hedging the currencies could be an option. Hedging strategies can help an IM reduce and control currency risk within their portfolio. In the short term the US economy could be affected by which ever candidate wins the race to the White House and Europe could be affected through the method at which Britain leaves the EU together with a run of forthcoming Europe wide elections. Schmittmann (2010) examined the benefits of currency hedging for international portfolios. He analysed the exposure in single and multi-country equity and bond portfolios for various investors. The thorough research looked at various hedging strategies over both short and long time horizons to determine any differential in the need to hedge. It was concluded that there was little need to hedge for a UK investor buying equities in Germany based on the strong correlation between the GBP/EURO and the both stock markets. He did however state that “At quarterly horizons, the case for hedging currency risk associated with investments in one foreign country at a time is very strong” (Schmittmann, 2010). Clearly the currency volatility, and double digit devaluation of the pound would back this statement up. A decision to hedge will ultimately be based on the time horizon of investments held. Froot (1993), similarly looked at the need to hedge from a UK investors perspective in the US markets and argued that currency hedges are less useful at reducing real return variance at long horizons than they are at short horizons. Contrary to this is the work of Statman and Fisher (2003), who found that the mean returns and standard deviation of global portfolios with currency hedging were approximately equal to those with unhedged currencies. Given the assumed IM’s investment time horizon to be medium to long term and n
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