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Database held in a relational DBMS

The following tables form part of a database held in a relational DBMS :

Hotel (hotelNo, hotelName, city) Room (roomNo, hotelNo, type, price) Booking

(hotelNo, guestNo, dateFrom, dateTo, roomNo) Guest (guestNo, guestName,


where Hotel contains hotel details and hotelNo is the primary key ; Room contains

room details for each hotel and (roomNo, hoteINo) forms the primary key ; Booking

contains details of bookings and (hoteINo, guestNo, datFrom) forms the primary key;

Guest contains guest details and guestNo is the primary key

a. Identify the foreign keys in this schema. Explain how the entity and referential

integrity rules apply to these relations.

b. Produce some sample tables for these relations that observe the relational

integrity rules. Suggest some general constraints that would be appropriate for

this schema.

c. Analyze the RDBMSs that you are currently using. Determine the support the

system provides for primary keys, alternate keys, foreign keys, relational

integrity, and views.

d. Implement the above schema in one of the RDBMSs you currently use.

Generate two user-views that are accessible and updatable as well as two

other user-views that cannot be updated.

Exercise 2 :

Assume you have been contracted to develop a database system for a university

library. You are required to use a systems development lifecycle approach. Discuss

how you are going to approach the project. Describe user groups that will be involved

during the requirement analysis. What are the key issues that need to be answered

during fact finding?

Exercise 3 :

Create an ER model for each of the following descriptions:

a. A large organization has several parking lots, which are used by staff.

b. Each parking lot has a unique name, location, capacity, and number of floors

(where appropriate).

c. Each parking lot has parking spaces, which are uniquely identified using a

space number.

d. Members of staff can request the sole use of a single parking space. Each

member of staff has a unique number, name, telephone extension number,

and vehicle license number.

e. Represent all the ER models described in parts (a), (b), (c), and (d) as a single

ER model. Provide any assumptions necessary to support your mode.

Sample Solution

king Decision-making is the powerhouse of every project; decisions made at pre-conception, in-project and post -project stages of the project, defines the ultimate success of the project (Stingl and Geraldi 2017). The Business Dictionary (2018) defines decision-making as the logical selection of the most appropriate option from available alternatives. Similarly, Merriam Webster Dictionary (2018) states that decision-making is the act of making decision particularly with a group of individuals. Tiwary (2013) describes decision-making as the method or strategy adopted by an enterprise to actualise set goals. Reese & Rodeheaver (1985, cited in McFall, 2015, p7) suggest that decision- making deals with the core processes, which a decision or indecision is made from competing alternatives, and might be or might not be attributed to behaviour. Inaction, like resisting responding or dodging a stimulus can become a chosen alternative for execution and likewise behaviour may start from the decision-making process despite the absence of alternatives to consider; In this instance, the behaviour seems simple and automatic (McFall, 2015). Redish (2013) portrays these apparently automatic behaviours as decisions, even though the decisions are reached through less cognitive effort , also known as reflex actions or heuristics. Furthermore, Redish contends that reflex actions and automatic responses have the potentials of been altered through cognitive system, an illustration of this can be seen in an individual that places a palm on a hot burner and resists the urge to remove it because of an expected reward. 2.5 Historical Perspective of Decision Making Decision-making is an act as old as humankind and the ancestors of modern humans made daily decisions based on interpretations of dreams, smokes, divinations and oracles (Buchanan and O’Connell, 2018). According to Gigerenzer (2011), modern decision-making dates back to the seventeen century; when Descartes and Pointcarre invented the first calculus of decision-making. Buchanan and O’Connell (2018) attributes the popularity of modern decision- making to Chester Barnard in the middle of the twentieth century; for importing the terminology “ decision-making” which was mainly a public administration concept to the business sector to substitute restrictive narratives like policy making and resource allocation. William Starbuck, a professor in Oregon University acknowledges the positive impact of Chester Barnard’s introduction of decision- making on managers by explaining that policy-making and resource allocation ar

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