decoding neanderthals

decoding neanderthals

Order Description

– Brutes of the Ice Age
– Simple stone tools to hunt
– Lacked the same intelligence as modern humans
– 40 thousand years ago disappeared
– 40 thousand years ago Europe was in an Ice Age
– Very muscular, short, very powerful
– Hunter & Gatherers
– Average age would be 30 years old
– Bench press 300-500 pounds
– Survived 300 thousand years in the harsh conditions
– Homosapiens migrated from Africa and were 10 to 1
– 150 years ago found the first Neanderthal skulls
– Cheekbones are swept back, and middle more protruding
– Shuffling walk
– Lacked the same brain power as humans
– Limited stone tools
– Levallois flakes are the tools they used
– Has to be aimed right to get the perfect flake
– Statistically symmetrical
– Complex toolmaking
– Stone flakes combined with a wooden stick to make a spear
– Put together with a leather band and glue like material
– Man made pitch from birch trees
– World’s oldest synthetic material
– Dry distillation
– Neanderthals mastered a complex thermal process
– Had some type of communication
– FoxP2 is a gene directly related to speech and language
– A site in Croatia contained genetics for neanderthal
– Carried billions of unwanted passengers
– Destroy the rogue DNA
– Four years to make the genome of a neanderthal
– First looked at FoxP2 of the neanderthal genome
– FoxP2 is shared among neanderthals and modern humans
– Same chemical and same order
– Neanderthals had communication and language
– Genetically closer to Europeans and Asians than Africans
– A little bit of neanderthal genomes in modern humans
– 1 to 4%
– Could interbreed and have fertile offspring
– Genetically close enough to interbreed with humans
– Cutting off feathers to decorate hair and other things
– Shells with holes to be worn as ornaments
– Used body paint to distinguish friend or foe
– Reached Europe 800 thousand years ago
– Chinese have the smallest neanderthal DNA (2%)
– Tuscan’s have the most neanderthal DNA (4%)
– Bred out, genetically swapped
– HLAs make the cells that attack virus and bacteria

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