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Developmental sequence and skills

A primary responsibility of a Speech Language Pathologist is to plan and implement intervention services. During this assignment, the student will apply knowledge of typical vocabulary development principles to the process of planning intervention for a child with an expressive language delay.

Instructions: You are going to begin direct speech and language intervention with Evelyn (the child referred to you in Week 2) to improve expressive language skills. Your assessment and observations indicated that her expressive language skills were at the 12-15 month level. In a 2-4 page, APA formatted, paper create a treatment plan for Evelyn that includes the following:

One treatment goal focused on increasing the number of different words Evelyn uses. The goal needs to be appropriate for a child of Evelyn’s age and language level, specify the word class, and 10 specific words within the class that you will target.
Review pages 153 through 158 in the text (start at the section titled Innate Biases Make Word Learning Efficient and read through the section titled Semantic Enrichment) with regards to setting up a rich lexicon. Provide a detailed plan for two hands-on intervention activities that you will use to teach your vocabulary targets. Include a listing of the materials that you will need for the activity. The activity and materials should be appropriate for Evelyn’s age and language ability.
Outline the developmental sequence and skills that you expect Evelyn to move through as she increases her expressive vocabulary and eventually begins to combine words into two-word phrases.

Sample Solution

eurofilament mRNAs are selectively reduced in diabetic rats and alterations on post-translational modification of NF proteins have been detected. A reduction of myelinated fiber size is correlated with axonal NFs loss in peripheral nerves of STZ-induced diabetic rats (25, 26), and mRNAs levels encoding for NF-L and NF-H are reduced in the same animal model of diabetes (7). Moreover, changes on the expression of several NF-associated protein kinases isoforms may also contribute to diabetes-induced changes (4). Several protein kinases regulate NF phosphorylation status, being NFs hyperphosphorylation a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal NF phosphorylation has been described in sensory neurons of animal models of type 1 diabetes (27). Moreover, in the spinal cord of diabetic rats there is increased phosphorylation of NF-H, (28). Additionally, changes on the activity of Cdk5 and GSK-3β kinases have been described to alter the phosphorylation status of NFs in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. Specifically, in dorsal root ganglion neuronsincreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β correlated linearly with increased phosphorylation of NF-H, while decreasing activity of Cdk5 is associated with reduced phosphorylation of NF-M, which may result in progressive deficits of axonal function (29). Microfilaments Microfilaments (or actin filaments) are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton, having 6 nm in diameter, providing both stability and dynamics to neurons. In neurons, actin filaments are packed into networks and stabilized by interacting proteins (22). Microfilaments play a role in spine formation and spine volume stabilization (30), with the dynamics of actin leading to the formation of new synapses as well as increased cell communication. The actin cytoskeleton controls several cellular processes. In animal models of diabetes there is an impairment of slow axonal transport of cytoskeletal elements like tubulin and NF proteins (slow component a), and polypeptides such as actin (slow component b) (31-33). Actin undergoes glycation in the brain of STZ-induced diabetic rats and the appearance of glycated actin is prevented by administration of insulin (9, 34). More recently, it was investigated if the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) is involved in axonal transport impairment via interaction with its cytoplasmic domain binding partner mDia1, which is involved in actin structure modifications. Slow axonal transport in the peripheral nerves is indeed affected by diabetes, but in a RAGE-independent manner (35). Moreover, mDia1 axonal transport is impaired, suggesting that diabetes-induced changes affecting actin binding proteins are early events in the course of the pathology (35), and forward the hypothesis that mDia1 axonal transport impairment might be correlated with the extent of actin glycation (34).

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