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Effort Estimation Exercise

Show all your workings

  1. The size (that is, the effort needed to complete it) of any task will depend on its characteristics. The units into which the work is divided will also differ. Identify the factors affecting the size of the task and the work units for the following activities:
    • installing computer workstations in a new office
    • transporting assembled personal computers from the factory where they were assembled to warehouses distributed in different parts of the country
    • typing in and checking the correctness of data that is populating a new data base
    • System testing a newly written software application
    (10 Marks)
  2. If you were asked as an expert to provide an estimate of the effort needed to make certain changes to an existing piece of software, what information would you like to have to hand to assist you in making that estimate? (2Marks)
  3. A small application maintains a telephone directory. The database for the application contains the following data types:

Staff reference
Department code
Room number
Telephone extension
E-mail address
Fax number

Transactions are needed which:
i) set up new entries;
ii) amend existing entries
iii) delete entries
iv) allow enquirers to list on line the details for a particular member of staff
v) produce a complete listing of the telephone directory entries in alphabetical order

a) Use this scenario to produce an estimated Mark II FP count. List all the assumptions you will need to make. (10 Marks)

b) Another requirement could be to produce the listing in (v) in departmental order. In your view should this increase FP count and if so by how much? (2 Marks)

  1. The following details are held about previously developed software modules.

module inputs entity types accessed outputs days
a 1 2 10 2.60
b 10 2 1 3.90
c 5 1 1 1.83
d 2 3 11 3.50
e 1 3 20 4.30
A new module has 7 inputs, one entity type access and 7 outputs. Which of the modules a to e is the closest analogy in terms of Euclidean distance? (3 Marks)

  1. Using the data in further exercise 4 above, calculate the Simons Mark II FPs for each module. Using the results, calculate the effort needed for the new module described in exercise 4. How does this estimate compare to the one based on analogy? (13 Marks)

Sample Solution

ter on, one of the most known methods will be discussed in a detailed way. The facial recognition methods that can be used, all have a different approach. Some are more frequently used for facial recognition algorithms than others. The use of a method also depends on the needed applications. For instance, surveillance applications may best be served by capturing face images by means of a video camera while image database investigations may require static intensity images taken by a standard camera. Some other applications, such as access to top security domains, may even necessitate the forgoing of the nonintrusive quality of face recognition by requiring the user to stand in front of a 3D scanner or an infrared sensor[15]. Consequently, there can be concluded that there can be made a division of three groups of face recognition techniques, depending on the wanted type of data results, i.e. methods that compare images, methods that look at data from video cameras and methods that deal with other sensory data, like 3D pictures or infrared imagery. All of them can be used in different ways, to prevent crime from happening or recurring. ii. How do these technologies work? As listed above, there exists a long list of methods and algorithms that can be used for facial recognition. Four of them are used frequently and are most known in the literature, i.e. Eigenface Method, Correlation Method, Fisherface Method and the Linear Subspaces Method. But how do these facial recognition work? Because of word limitations, only one of those four facial recognition techniques, i.e The Eigenface Method, will be discussed. Hopefully this will give an general idea of how facial recognition works and can be used. One of the major difficulties of facial recognition, is that you have to cope with the fact that a person’s appearance may change, such that the two images that are being compared differentiate too much from each other. Also environmental changes in pictures, like lightning, have to be taken into account, in order to have successful facial recognition. Thus from a picture of a face, as well as from a live face, some yet more abstract visual representation must be established which can mediate recognition despite the fact that in real life the same face will hardl

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