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EMPOWERMENT AND RECOVERY

Mental Health Nurses have a responsibility for developing mental health practice which works towards
implementing the values and principles of empowerment and recovery. Using recovery literature critically
discuss how the values of recovery are developed and integrated into professional practice

Sample Solution

tools and rules of thumb developed through experiences, to enable individuals make judgements and arrive at decisions quickly (Gigerenzer and Gaissmaier, 2011). 2.6 Decision theory Decision theory is a divergent field because of the different perceptions held by researchers about decisions (Hansson 2005). Decision theory also known as the theory of choice is the study of the rationale behind the choices made by an agent (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2015). Decision theory deals with goal oriented behaviour in the presence of alternatives (Hansson, 2005). Decision theory can be broken into three branches namely; normative, descriptive and prescriptive branch (Vareman, 2008). Normative theory deals with how to make accurate decisions in a scenario of uncertainty and values, descriptive theory, examines the possibility of imperfect individuals making decision and prescriptive theory is a combination of descriptive and normative theories to achieve the best decision at any given situation (Vareman, 2008). However, there is no universal agreement on a standardized classification on the theories and therefore many researchers have classified the theories as either rational or non-rational (Gigerenezer, 2001; Hansson, 2005; Oliveira, 2007). In differentiating the rational from non-rational theory, Gigerenezer (2001) identified four attributes for rational theories as Optimization, normative, omniscience and internal consistency. In the same vein, non-rational theories are identifiable to posses attributes such as non-optimization, descriptive, search, ecological rationality and cognitive building blocks like emotions, imitation, and social norms. According to Ahmed et al. ( 2014 ),some of the theories that have gained popularity in the context of decision-making are as follows; the “Subjective Expected Utility Theory” by Savage in 1954; which suggest that a decision maker chooses between alternatives (or strategies) in the presence of risk. Savage capitalized on the assumption that the decision maker will always tend to seek pleasure and avoid pain. However, Slovic and Tversky (1974) demonstrated that people do not believe in Savage axioms because of the limitation of this theory which is the assumption that the decision maker will seek to reach well-reasoned decisions based on consideration of all possible known alternatives i.e., decision maker is always rational. However, human decision-making is more complex and can be irrational (Stanovich, 2011). Furthermore, in other to correct the inherent limitations of the subjective ex
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