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Environmental Systems: Climate and Vegetation

1.) The following data is taken from the Gulf of California Islands. In what ways do
these data support the equilibrium theory of island biogeography?
Gulf of California Distance from Island Number of
Islands mainland area plant species

Santa Cruz 26 km 39 km2
Partida 19 km 88 km2
Cerralvo 13 km 362 km2
San Jose 6 km 544 km2
2.) With your understanding of island biogeography, which of the following islands
would have the greatest and least number of different species: Great Britain, Guam, or
Long Island? What evidence led you to determine your response?

Sample Solution

welve years later, on January 1st, 2016, the initial tax legislation were repealed, and new legislations entered into force with the purpose to update the Romanian taxation system with international taxation standards – Law no. 227/2015 regarding Fiscal Code, respectively Law no. 207/2015 regarding Fiscal Procedural Code. Concerning the Permanent Establishment, we will further analyse this concept starting with the current Romanian legislation and will move forward through the international legislation up to current challenges in BEPS era. But why is so important a PE analysis? First of all, it is worldwide accepted that the states want to tax the revenues derived within their territories. Thus, if taxation of local companies’ income is relatively easy, being took into account the specific domestic regulations (e.g. revenues of a Romanian resident entity will be taxed with 16% for corporate income taxpayer, respectively 1% or 3% for microenterprise taxpayers), taxation of non-residents should be analysed from a case by case, in order to avoid a double taxation for the same type of income. Hence, whether after an in depth analysis is performed, a PE is born within a state’s territory, all the related income derived by the non-resident will be subject to taxation in that state – e.g. if a Dutch entity is carrying on transactions in Romania through which a PE is born, all the revenues derived from that specific activity will be subject to 16% corporate income tax rate in Romania. ¬ What is a Permanent Establishment as per the Romanian tax legislation As per art. 8 para. (1) of Law no. 227/2015 regarding the Fiscal Code, “a permanent establishment is defined as a place through which a non-resident’s business activity is totally or partly carried on, either direct or through a dependent agent”. Thus, it can be noticeably that there are two main elements that cumulatively can born a PE in Romania: (i) an extraneity element – the non-resident; (ii) a business activity carried on within Romanian territory.

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