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Financial Markets

Exercise 1:
Suppose there are two bonds you are considering:
Bond A Bond B
Maturity (years) 20Y 30Y
Annual Coupon rate (%) 12% 8%
Par Value 1000€ 10000€
a) If both bonds had a required rate of return of 10%, what would the bonds’ prices be?
b) Re-calculate the prices of the bonds if the required return falls to 9%. Could you explain why the price increases or decreases given this change in
required return?
Exercise 2:
Calculate the NAV of the following fund, assuming 35,000 shares are outstanding. Calculate the percentage change in the NAV of the fund on April 29th 2022.
Stock Shares owned price
PYPL 3,000 $ 117.65
TWTR 5,000 $ 50.98
PG 9,000 $ 154.62
NVDA 6,000 $ 259.31
RTX 2,000 $ 98.81
Besides the underlying securities listed above, the fund shows on the Balance Sheet
Cash __________________________________ $ 155,000.-
Liabilities _______________________________ $ 18,500.-
An investor comes the day after computing the above NAV and invests quarter million USD in the fund. Assume no fees or expenses. The money managerbuys
2,000 shares of PayPal and 1,500 of Twitter.
a) Will the NAV increase or decrease? Why?
b) Calculate the return on the investor’s shares. How many did he buy with 250k$?
Compare carefully Mutual Funds, Index Funds and ETFs. Explain clearly what the benefits and reasons are for investing in a Mutual Fund, Index Fund and ETFs.
Investment companies attempt to explain to investors the nature of the risk the investor incurs when buying shares in their mutual funds and other investment
funds. Scrutinize their products and their risk evaluations. Students present their findings and their return on investment. The aim of this assessment is to
familiarize students with the structure and operation of the main funds, such as Mutual Funds, Index Funds and ETFs, and specifically with the risk-return profile
and preferences of investors.

Sample Solution

ever Fielder’s description of how situational factors affect the leadership style required for the situation is extremely useful in understanding the fundamentals of leadership (Pettinger, 2007). Chelladurai in his Multi Dimensional Model of Leadership, expands on much of Fiedler’s theory but in a continuum based approach, in which the leader can adapt their leadership style to fit the situation (Chelladurai and Madella, 2006). Chelladurai’s theory is taken from sports psychology but can be applied to an organisational scenario. It provides a much more empirical categorisation of task structure, clearly differentiating a plethora of situations that require certain leadership styles for success. Chealldurai found three characteristics that affect the leadership style required for a situation, called antecedents, they mainly expand upon Fiedler’s situational factors and leader – member relations and ultimately affect how a leader should behave towards a situation. The first are situational characteristics, the environment in which the leader must perform, the second are leader characteristics, the experience, personal qualities and skills of the leader, and the third are member characteristics, the motivation, skill and experience levels of group members (Chelladurai and Madella, 2006). The situational characteristics and member characteristics have a required behaviour to ensure maximum group performance, they also have a preferred behaviour to ensure the satisfaction of group members, if the leaders actual behaviour matches both the required behaviour and preferred behaviour of the situation the consequence is maximum group performance and satisfaction. However, if the group are not performing and achieving goals or are not satisfied or both, then the leader is able to amend their actual behaviour to improve this. Leaders able to monitor performance and satisfaction, and understand what is required to amend the situation will achieve optimum group performance in Chelladurai’s model. The one limitation of Chealldurai’s model is that it assumes the leader is in a position of complete positional power over the group, and can implement any leadership style of their choosing without constraints. Positional power is the authority and influence a leader has over a group, if the leader has positional power, they will be able to implement the leadership style they best see fit for the situation. Positional power cannot be measured or quantified, making it highly ambiguous and hard for a leader to understand whether they have it or how then can gain it. It becomes the responsibility of the organisation to have policies in place to provide leaders with some positional power, usually by establishing a clear hierarchal structure. By establishing a hierarchy, the leade

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