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Genetics/Genomics

Lea, D.H. (2008). Genetic and genomic healthcare: Ethical issues of importance to nurses. Online Journal of
Issues in Nursing, 13(1), p. 6.
Consider the following scenario:
You are a nurse in a family practice clinic. Mrs. Joan Smith is a 43-year-old patient that has received her
primary care at the clinic for over twenty years. Additionally, Mrs. Smith’s sister and mother are patients at the
clinic. Recently, Joan underwent genetic testing that was positive for heredity breast/ovarian cancer. A plan is
developed to increase surveillance for these cancers in an effort to ensure early detection. As her relationship
with her sister is strained, Joan does not wish to share this information with her family members. Her sister has
a one in two chance of carrying the same gene mutation and carries the same significant risk of developing
cancer (Lea, 2008).
In the United States, you do not have the legal authority to reveal this information to family members without
permission from the patient. However, this information could be potentially life-saving for the sister.
Interestingly, in the United Kingdom, this information can be released to family in certain situations. In this
paper, you will look beyond the legal duties that we currently must abide. In this paper, examine what you think
is ethical and what the legal repercussions to your choices are.

  1. Post a 3-5 paragraph original posting in the designated discussion board related to the ethics involved in fair
    use of genetic information and patient confidentiality while considering the following questions:
    As the nurse, do you have an ethical duty (not legal duty) to protect Mrs. Smith’s privacy at all costs? In all
    cases?
    OR
    Do you have an ethical duty to act in the best interest of the uninformed sister? Discuss the dilemma and its
    implications in your posting.
    Decide which question you support and provide scholarly content to support your choice in your discussion.
    Also, consider the bullet points below:
    What ethical principle or theory would support your choice?
    Do you think that HIPAA regulations need to be amended to address the use of genetic information? Why?

Sample Solution

i. Which facial recognition technologies exist? A numerous of facial recognition techniques and methods are being used for security and authentication purposes which includes areas in detective agencies and military purposes[25]. This way, the facial recognition techniques can play a role in preventing crime. There are multiple methods considered the two primary tasks of facial recognition, i.e. verification and identification. Verification, also called authentication, is presenting a face image of an unknown individual along with a claim of identity, and then ascertaining whether the individual is who he/she claims to be. Identification, also called recognition, is presenting an image of an unknown individual and determining that person’s identity by comparing that image with a database of images of known individuals[15]. There are even some facial recognition techniques that are able to see emotions. These techniques, as well as verification and identification are of great importance when it comes to finding criminals so crime can be prevented. A few examples of the many methods and algorithm that can be used within the field of facial recognition are: Geometric Feature Based Methods, Template Based Methods, Correlation Based Methods, Matching, Pursuit Based Methods, Singular Value Decomposition Based Methods, The Dynamic Link, Matching Methods, Illumination Invariant Processing Methods, Support Vector Machine Approach, Karhunen- Loeve Expansion Based Methods, Feature Based Methods, Neural Network Based Algorithms and Model Based Methods [25]. Later on, one of the most known methods will be discussed in a detailed way. The facial recognition methods that can be used, all have a different approach. Some are more frequently used for facial recognition algorithms than others. The use of a method also depends on the needed applications. For instance, surveillance applications may best be served by capturing face images by means of a video camera while image database investigations may require static intensity images taken by a standard camera. Some other applications, such as access to top security domains, may even necessitate the forgoing of the nonintrusive quality of face recognition by requiring the user to stand in front of a 3D scanner or an infrared sensor[15]. Consequently, there can be concluded that there can be made a division of three groups of face recognition techniques, depending on the wanted type of data results, i.e. methods that compare images, met
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