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Happiness Hypothesis

  1. What, where, and when was The Axial Age? 2. Many scholars believe the “perennial philosophy” of the Axial Age is an indicator that most if not all cultures originally shared a common monotheistic outlook of religion before the emergence of the various outlooks that exist today. What do you think of this theory? 3. All religious worldviews boil down to either Henotheism/Monotheism, Polytheism, Pantheism, or Atheism. Define these terms. 4. (Have read by Day 1 of Week 7): Read through the various excerpts from the sacred texts of Hinduism and answer the following questions: a. What is the riddle-like dialogue which the sages engaged in about the origin and meaning of the universe called? b. Define atman and brahman. c. How did the story of Shvetaketu and Uddalaka illustrate the concepts of atman and brahman? d. What is karma? What is karma-yoga and how is it different than the earlier understanding of karma? 5. (Have read by Day 2 of Week 7): Read through the various excerpts from the sacred texts of Buddhism and answer the following questions: a. What are the Four Noble Truths? b. What is the Eightfold Path? c. What are the Three Poisons? d. What is samsara? e. What are the Three Marks of Existence? f. What is anatta? g. What is Nibbana? Type up #’s 1-5 by end of Week 7 6. (Have read by Day 1 of Week 8): Read through the various excerpts from The Analects of Confucius and answer the following questions: a. What is Li? b. What are the 5 Relationships? c. What is Hsiao? Jen? 7. (Have read by Day 1 of Week 8): Read through the excerpts from the Daodejing and answer the following question: a. Describe the Dao. What is it exactly? 8. Summarize the various Hellenistic Philosophies’ perspectives on the human condition here. 9. What is the Ancient Happiness Hypothesis? What are its flaws? 10. (Have read by Day 2 of Week 8): Read the various excerpts from the Stoic philosophers in the Unit 3 Readings Document and then answer the following question: How do the Stoic philosophers’ views reflect a belief in the Happiness Hypothesis? 11. (Have read by Day 2 of Week 8): Read the story “The Choice of Heracles” story in the Unit 3 Readings Document and then answer the following question: How would you have chosen? 12. In the Book of Ecclesiastes in the Old Testament, there is a remarkably nuanced “happiness hypothesis.” How is this view different from that of the Stoics?

Sample Solution

ling pathway activation [REF Tabas I. 1997 & 2002 4,5]. It is therefore that the majority of the cholesterol found in the body exists in its more stable, less cytotoxic, esterified form (cholesteryl esters (CE)) that take up about 2/3 of the serum cholesterol. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) drives the esterification of a FC molecule in plasma, adding a single fatty acid to the hydroxyl group [REF 6 glomset 1968]. The conversion of un-esterified cholesterol towards CE enables cells to store and transport cholesterol, without the risk of FC induced cytotoxicity [REF]. Upon hydrolyzation by cholesteryl ester hydrolase, cholesterol and free fatty acids are regained for further biosynthesis [REF 36 goedeke]. Besides the eminent role in animal cellular membrane modulation, cholesterol influences a range of pathways i.a. as the precursor for hormone steroidogenesis [REF] and bile acids [REF], plays a significant role in transmembrane signalling [REF] and cellular proliferation [REF fernandez 7]. Despite the functional diversity between cholesterol using pathways, acquisition of cholesterol follows, for most mammalian cells, a comparable pattern. Cellular cholesterol is either de novo synthesized or derived from exogenous uptake from the circulation. 3 LIPID METABOLISM 3.1 DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF CHOLESTEROL De novo synthesis of cholesterol is mainly found in vertebrates and in low amounts in plants, (not in prokaryotes) [REF Behrman EJ, 2005 8] and derived via the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The MVA is a fundamental metabolic network providing essential elements for normal cellular metabolism and executed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytoplasm of a cell. Despite the presence of MVA pathway in almost all animal cells, the contribution per organ differs. The human brain generates vast amounts of de novo synthesized cholesterol, approximately 20% of the total cholesterol pool and primary FC, mainly found in myelin sheaths that insulate axons [REF dietschy turley 2004 9]. Moreover, the hepatic contribution to the cholesterol pool derived from de novo synthesis varies per species, hepatic cells in mice contribute approximately 40% to the whole cholesterol synthesis, while human liver cells adds only 10% to the total pool [REF Dietschy turley 2001 10 REF 30 Goedeke ]. The MVA-pathway is a highly controlled enzymatic process, resulting in the stepwise formation of FC [REF reviewed by 11 tricarico 2015 16067-16084]. The newly formed cellular cholesterol is either directly used as a precursor for metabolites (bile acids, steroids, water soluble vitamins, included in the membrane) or converted towards CE by acyl-Co A acyl transferase (ACAT) and either effluxed towards the plasma compartment or stored in lipid droplets [REF 12 35 goedeke]. The stored CE within lipid droplets can be converted into FC by hormone sensitive lipase (HSL)[REF]. Since appropriate cellular cholesterol levels are critical for normal cell metabolism, the regulation of intracellular cholesterol levels are tightly controlled by feedback m

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