How have changes in print ad portrayal of females over the last 15 years affected gender socialization?

  1. Literature Review [this will be the meat of your paper]
    1. Using Goffman’s theories and work to study this, body display in advertisements affecting gender behaviors from 1979-1991 (Yang, 1997)

i. Methodology and analysis used –

  1. Quantitative: primary data analysis – from data collected by the researcher OR secondary data analysis – from a database; statistical model used
  2. Qualitative (e.g. interview, content analysis, observation)
  3. Level of analysis (micro, meso, macro)

ii. Sample size and composition (i.e. n=2,500; 90% respondents white females ages 21-48 drawn from a national probability sample)

iii. Identification of key variables and their measurement

  1. Independent variable(s) and dependent variable(s)
  2. Measurement: e.g. gender role attitudes were measured on a Likert Scale (1-5) from very traditional to very egalitarian.

iv. Hypotheses of the authors

v. Key findings

vi. Analyze strengths and weaknesses of article



  1. Differences in affects of gendered stereotypes in print ads on gendered socialization in patriarchal vs matriarchal countries (Oderkerken-Schroder, du Wulf and Hofstee, 2002)
  2. Reflection hypothesis to understand how gender role socialization is affected by print advertisements (source TBD)
  3. Analysis/Synthesis of sources and how they answer my research Q
  1. Future Research – In this section, I will identify some additional related questions that came to mind during my research but were not answered in the literature I reviewed.
  2. Conclusion – In this section I will recap my research question and key findings.
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