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Human Relations; The Hawthorne Studies

• This video gives perspectives from the actual
people involved.
Questions
• The first experiment showed no difference no
matter the condition (bright lights, same or dim
lights). Why do you think that may be?
• How important is it for you to be heard in your
own work or organizations? How does it change
what you do when you are or are not heard?
• How have the results from the Hawthorne
Studies changed the way things are done today?
• Do you think what the company got out of the
study was different from what they were
intending to find? Why?
Hawthorne Studies
• The Hawthorne effect, social factors, and
management style were often cited as the
reason for increased productivity.
• Later studies found there may have been
other answers (worker selection, incentives,
etc.) that may have had a larger influence.
• Even so, these studies were revolutionary in
improving working conditions and starting to
view people as assets in a business.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Hierarchy of prepotency- the lower level
needs must be met before one can move on
to the higher level. (ex. Hard to feel creative
when a person is tired.)
• Employers had been providing water, breaks
for food, shelter, and meeting basic needs.
The Hawthorne Studies revealed the desire for
higher level needs to be met.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
• Douglas McGregor thought that some
managers think workers need a strong hand
and guidance. The inherent characteristics are
not overly positive (Theory X manager).
• Other managers believe workers have
initiative and will be productive without a firm
hand guiding (Theory Y manager).
• McGregor thought more managers should be
like the Theory Y managers.
Theory Z
• Globalization brings ideas from Japan
• Moves away from thinking about managing
individuals. Management is about the team.
• A number of scholars (see pg. 107) give some
guidelines for mindset:
– Strong culture
– Long term over short term
– Collective over individual
Theory Z
• Better understanding of overall work
processes.
• Collective autonomy
• Ability to make decisions through consensus
• Control own resources
• Team over individual rewards
Theory Z- Managers
• Facilitate
• Mutual monitoring
• Backup behavior
• Pool resources, adapt duties
• Team orientation
Concertive Control
• When control shifts away from managers, it
becomes part of group responsibility.
• Begin to self-govern according to social norms
and organization values.
• Pressure from peers may be just as
threatening

Sample Solution

“At the outbreak of the epidemic there was no city Board of Health in existence. The last board had been totally ineffective since it lacked sufficient authority to enforce its rules and regulations, and had been denied support by the city authorities” (Carrigan, 1853). No one was trained enough nor had been exposed to yellow fever enough to understand the specific cause and protection methods. People were left in the dark with the true severity of the infection and well as close by cases. “When informed of the first cases of yellow fever that appear in summer, the newspaper press almost invariably denies the truth of the reports, and, not unfrequently, showers upon the heads of those whose duty it is to pronounce upon the character of the prevailing disease, volumes of abuse and ridicule. If the cases multiply and the sign of the times plainly indiare the approach of an epidemic, the able editors of our valuable daily journals, under what i must pronounce a most erroneous impression of their duty to the public, studiously endeavour to conceal or suppress the true state of affairs” (Fenner, 2008). Newspapers were hesitant to release stories regarding yellow fever because businesses feared that word of an epidemic would cause a quarantine to be placed on the city and trade would suffer. In their defense, there was no trained physicians that could properly treat yellow fever so it became difficult to write a story solely based on guesses. “A cartoon posted in the Daily Item mocked the handling of fever cases in New Orleans by depicting sufferers from non-fever maladies, like a toothache and a broken arm, as yellow fever cases according to the Board of Health. By doing so, the newspaper vocalized its disapproval of the Louisiana Board of Health’s handling of fever cases and the medical knowledge of the board’s employed physicians” (Runge, 2013). People were aggravated with the lack of awareness and accuracy from journals, so they found comic relief in making fun of them. “Journals began to comment on the pestilence, blaming the city council and its do-nothing policy. Under tremendous pressure from public opinion and urged on by the Mayer, the Council on july 25 finally appointed a Board of Health” (Carrigan, 1853). Pathophysiology “The phenomenon of yellow fever was like a jigsaw puzzle with a number of missing pieces. Until those pieces were discovered the picture remained distorted until the discovery of the insect vector, the irregular spread of the pestilence presented a knotty problem in logic to speculative minds” (Carrigan, 1853). U.S Army surgeon Major Walter Reed made the first important contribution to the field of medicine with his study of yellow fever. During his time of service in the Spanish-American war, Reed found soldiers dying from both yellow fever and malaria. Unsure of the cause, Reed set out to appoint a commission to investi
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