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making in terms of choice between options is that humans combine all the alternatives in order to reach a ‘logical’ conclusion (Taylor, 2012b). Likewise, The classic decision making model emerged because of the rationality assumptions that assumes the intelligence activity, design activity and choice activity are the conditions that are certain in the classical decision-making framework (Nichols, 2005), (Li, 2008). In addition, Hucaynski and Buchanan (2002) compares the rationality concept with “scientific reasoning, empiricism and positivism; which utilises decision criteria of evidence, logical arguments and reasoning. This classical model is the cradle of the rational-analytic approach to decision making with minor variations, which makes it less difficult to understand, and appeals to the belief in rationality (Ahmed et al., 2014). Despite the popularity of the classical model among managers, it does not reflect the reality of decision making since it assumes the causal linkages are predictable and it does not represent how people make decisions in the organization (Robbins & Coulter, 2003). Similarly, Nichols (2005) confirms that, the classical mode does not reflect the iterative nature of developing clarity, formulating a viable course of action and developing commitment to that course of action. Furthermore, classical model lacks the political aspects of decision-making, and disregards intuition or instinct (Nichols, 2005). “The military model “is an intervention made by the U. S. Army War College and is a variation of the classic model; which begins with settings the objectives of the decision-making, development, evaluation and choosing the best alternative (Ahmed et al., 2014). In addition, the military model dictates the organizational goals and objectives as a driving force in decision-making and emphasizes the importance of execution or following through to make the decision happen (Nichols 2005). Unfortunately, the military model model encounters the same limitations as the classic model; it is static, unrealistic and does not accommodate the dynamism of the problem situation because it ignores other aspects of decision-making such as, politics, intuition, consensus and the ability to spot pattern within the decision-making framework (Ahmed et al., 2014). Kurtz and Snowden (2003) developed a more innovative non-sequential decision making model; known as “Cynefin” or habitat; which means an evolutionary perspective of complex systems characterized with uncertainty and this model attracts research from various disciplines ranging from complex adaptive systems theory, cognitive science, anthropology and evolutionary psychology. Kurtz and Snowden (2003) also mentioned that cynetin is concerned with how people perceive and make
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