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Letter to a Congressperson

As nurses we too have a moral, ethical, and professional duty to be advocates for our patients so that the government can meet the moral challenge of taking care of the children, aged, and ill. To do this we need to be part of the dynamic process of healthcare policy making. We need then to be politically active in both state and national initiatives that affect healthcare. One simple way is letter writing. Below are some guidelines about writing your Congressperson on an issue you believe will affect the scope of your practice and ultimately patient care.

Sample Solution

Decision-making is an act as old as humankind and the ancestors of modern humans made daily decisions based on interpretations of dreams, smokes, divinations and oracles (Buchanan and O’Connell, 2018). According to Gigerenzer (2011), modern decision-making dates back to the seventeen century; when Descartes and Pointcarre invented the first calculus of decision-making. Buchanan and O’Connell (2018) attributes the popularity of modern decision- making to Chester Barnard in the middle of the twentieth century; for importing the terminology “ decision-making” which was mainly a public administration concept to the business sector to substitute restrictive narratives like policy making and resource allocation. William Starbuck, a professor in Oregon University acknowledges the positive impact of Chester Barnard’s introduction of decision- making on managers by explaining that policy-making and resource allocation are never ending acts, while decision denotes the conclusion of a discussion and start of an action plan (Buchanan and O’Connell, 2018). In addition, Gigerenzer (2011) suggests that the contemporary view of decision-making involves the use of heuristics and human information processing; which is the revolutionary work of Herbert Simon. Heuristics are mental short cuts, cognitive tools and rules of thumb developed through experiences, to enable individuals make judgements and arrive at decisions quickly (Gigerenzer and Gaissmaier, 2011). 2.6 Decision theory Decision theory is a divergent field because of the different perceptions held by researchers about decisions (Hansson 2005). Decision theory also known as the theory of choice is the study of the rationale behind the choices made by an agent (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2015). Decision theory deals with goal oriented behaviour in the presence of alternatives (Hansson, 2005). Decision theory can be broken into three branches namely; normative, descriptive and prescriptive branch (Vareman, 2008). Normative theory deals with how to make accurate decisions in a scenario of uncertainty and values, descriptive theory, examines the possibility of imperfect individuals making decision and prescriptive theory is a combination of descriptive and normative theories to achieve the best decision at any given situation (Vareman, 2008). However, there is no universal agreement on a standardized classification on the theories and therefore many researchers have classified the theories as either rational or non-rational (Gigerenezer, 2001; Hansson, 2005; Oliveira, 2007). In differentiating the rational from non-rational theory, Gigerenezer (2001) identified four attributes for rational theories as Optimization, normative, omniscience and internal consistency. I
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