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Marx and Marxism

Questions:

  1. In what sense is money, according to Marx, a source of alienation? Alienation of what from whom?
  2. Describe Marx’s critique of the credit system in as much detail as possible.
  3. What might it mean for human beings to produce as human beings (rather than as wage-laborers and, correlatively, as consumers of commodities)?
  4. What are wages, and how are they determined by the dynamics of a capitalist economy?
  5. In what sense is wage-labor, according to Marx, a source of alienation? Alienation of what from whom?
  6. How does Marx imagine communism emerging out of the dynamic of capitalism? Why, by the way, is he convinced that the human senses will come fully alive only under communism?
  7. Marx argues that “Since the worker has been reduced to a machine, the machine can confront him as a competitor” (Early Writings, p. 286). Describe what he means by this claim.
  8. Marx argues that “Communism is the positive supersession of private property as human self-estrangement, and hence the true appropriation of the human essence through and for man; it is the complete restoration of man to himself as a social, i.e., human being, a restoration which has become conscious and which takes place within the entire wealth of
    previous periods of development” (Marx-Engels Reader, p. 84). Explain this claim to the best of your ability.
  9. Marx argues that “A cotton-spinning jenny is a machine for spinning cotton. It becomes capital only in certain relations. Torn from these relationships, it is no more capital than gold in itself is money or sugar the price of sugar” (Marx-Engels Reader, p. 207). Explain this claim in detail.
  10. What are the principal forms of property ownership that have defined human history, according to Marx, and how are we to understand the form and content of the ideologies that have arisen in conjunction with them?
  11. Marx claims that “The existence of a class which possesses nothing but its capacity to labour is a necessary prerequisite of capital” (Marx-Engels Reader, p. 208). Why is this?
  12. Marx argues that “The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas” (Marx-Engels Reader, p. 172). Describe this claim in as much detail as possible.
  13. How and why does the ruling class in any given era represent its beliefs as universally valid? Provide specific examples, contemporary or historical, to illustrate this claim.
  14. Marx claims that “When . . . capital is converted into common property, into the property of all members of society, personal property is not thereby transformed into social property. It is only the social character of the property that is changed. It loses its class-character” (Marx-Engels Reader, p. 485). What does this mean?
  15. What is capital, and how is it accumulated? Moreover, why are the relations among capitalists necessarily antagonistic? Finally, why are the relations between capitalists and proletarians necessarily antagonistic?
  16. What is profit, and how is it created? In answering this question, employ the concept “surplus value.”
  17. Why, according to Marx, is the proletariat the revolutionary class whose mission is to overthrow the bourgeoisie and bring an end to capitalism?
  18. In what sense is capitalism an economic order predicated on an ethic of denial of all that renders one truly human?

Sample Solution

The second aspect has in view the fact that traditional marxism was seen as a means of modernizing these societies that had been applied but not adapted. The main issues that had to be adapted to the implementation of the scientific ideology of Marxism would have to compensate for the perceptual and mentality characteristics of society (myths, symbols, imagination and anthropomorphic thinking). At the same time, Islamic fundamentalism promotes a contemporary, symbolic and imaginary discourse opposed to modern ideologies. Starting from this point, there is a strong politicization and sacrament of politics that progressively transforms the symbols of Islamicity into authentic and strongly individualized ego. In other words, the path to political manipulation opens which, on the one hand, has the main purpose of maintaining traditional structures of domination, and on the other hand, the realization of the Islamic political utopia (eg. the achievement of the universal Islamic state) on fundamentalist principles . Amplifying this idea, the ability of Islamic leaders to ideologize a religious tradition is done in two ways : First, the reorganization of religious principles is made to have a much more convincing and original tinge. Secondly, we are talking about an idealized adaptation of religion to serve as a means of achieving machiavellian goals. The two aspects can be summed up to the thesis that each interpretation of the Quaran becomes an instrument for various practices, the adaptation of the fundamental teachings reinforce the motivations of these actions, and the emphasis of a learning essence (depending on the purpose ) provide continuity in achieving the goals (be they peaceful, warlike, or terrorist). The foundations underlying terrorist acts are generally considered to be utopias and are subject to a wide range of prejudices . But before talking about Islam and terrorism, consider it necessary to look carefully at the two in order to establish whether or not there is a link between Islam and terrorism, precisely to bring light to these prejudices. The underlying issue is that of an exlusive interpretation beyond the context of sacred texts, a pr
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