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Organic Chemistry Lab

If the solubility of cholesterol in methanol were 1 g/96 mL at 20ºC and 1 g/4.1 mL at 80ºC, what is the absolute minimum amount of methanol needed to recrystallize 5.13 g cholesterol? Report the number of mL to the nearest whole number.
In recrystallization experiments, not all of the starting material is ever recovered, even if the initial material was 100% pure. To determine the % recovery, the ratio of final to starting masses of material is taken and converted into a percentage. In an experiment, 5.7 g of impure fluorene is recrystallized in 10 ml ethanol. After filtration and drying, 5.5 g of fluorene crystals are found on the filter paper. What is the percent recovery? List the percent to the nearest whole number and do not include the % sign.
If the solubility of cholesterol in methanol were 1 g/99 mL at 20ºC and 1 g/4.2 mL at 80ºC, what is the maximum mass of cholesterol that could be recrystallized from 5.44 g cholesterol? Report the number of grams to two decimal places.
Calculate the maximum % recovery possible if the solubility at room temperature is 1g/461 mL and at the boiling temperature of the solvent is 1g/14 mL. Report your answer as a percentage to the nearest whole number, without the percent sign.
It is important to always minimize the amount of solvent used, allowing for evaporation. If we add a relatively large excess, we expect our recrystallization to produce lower percent recoveries. A common mistake is to misplace the decimal, resulting in addition of 11x the solvent instead of the recommended 1.1x. If a substance dissolves in a solvent at 1g/459 mL at room temperature and at 1g/13 mL at the solvent’s boiling point, what would be the maximum expected amount recovered if using 11x the minimum amount of solvent in recrystallizing 10 g of the substance? Report your answer in grams to one decimal place.

Sample Solution

Dealing with these crimes in the justice system is therefore just as ambiguous as theorizing and conceptualizing. However, some notable contributions have been made in the 20th century, including the expansion of federal criminal law and reach of federal fraud statutes (Anello & Glaser, 2016). The Second Circuit has contributed to the development of white collar jurisprudence over the last century, finally allowing for national conversations, court decisions, law, practice, procedure, and punishment of white collar crimes (Anello & Glaser, 2016). Contributions from empirical research have also led to the creation of white collar crime units, as well as more grant money and publicly available systemic data for in-depth research (Reurink, 2016). Finally, criminological contributions have brought about discussion of the separation between individual and group rights (Michalowski, 1979; Reurink, 2016). For white collar offenders, this could make prosecutions and conceptualization much clearer, leading to better research and outcomes to tackle this problem. Conclusion No crime exists until someone in power says that something is a crime. With regards to labeling and white collar crimes, the law is selective. Criminal law targets selectively and unequally, promoting and protecting white collar crimes and disproportionally criminalizing and stigmatizing drug offenses and other crimes by ordinary citizens (Carrington & Hogg, 2002). The capitalist system tends to favor the privileged and demonize the oppressed. Contributions to both criminology and criminal justice are promising, showing a revitalized interest in labeling theory and crimes of the powerful. Critical criminology has opened the door for national dialogue and deeper analysis into the causes and consequences of crimes within these power structures. Further empirical research is needed on both topics to continue the discussion and find some solutions to these power imbalances in the criminal justice system.

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