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Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.
Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare
• Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment
• Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.
• Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.
• Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:
• Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
• Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
• Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Sample Solution

work with goslings. Lorenz believed that A breakdown in the relationship with its mother led to a disruption in the development of a bird’s normal social behaviour, supporting his theory that the first relationship a bird experiences determines the bird’s future. Likewise, John Bowlby claimed that a disruption in the child’s attachment to its mother had grave consequences for his or her adult personality (Vicedo, 2009). It is my understanding that in Bowlby’s attachment theory, an anxious attachment style has a prolonged, more complicated effect upon grieving, a person with an anxious style of attachment may experience deeper levels of depression, contrary wise a secure attachment to the deceased, may indicate less depression and aid the transition through grieving and the recovery from it. This may be that in an anxious state of attachment the deceased may not have been emotionally available to the bereaved, and therefore the bereaved person may over-activate their grief response. There are several limitations to Bowlby’s attachment theory the first being that the model was based upon young children utilising momentary separations, which were stressful for the child, more understanding could come from an observation of how parents interact with the child and what they provide for each other during natural, non-stressful situations. How children interact with their parents in a non-stressful situation may provide more information on how the attachment model works than how the child acts when the mother leaves and then returns. Secondary to this the observations took place utilising only the primary caregiver, for example, the mother and other family attachments may not be characterised by similar reactions. Finally, the father or a sibling may have the same attachment with the child at the same time, relating directly to adults having more than one primary attachment, such as significant other and their children. This shows that attachment is not merely confined to infancy but experienced countless times throughout life including adolescence, early adulthood and beyond. There are several models of grieving that can be explored in relation to disenfranchised grief, firstly the five stages of grief Kubler-Ross (2005) states that the five stages of grief, have evolved since their introduction and have been very misunderstood over the past decades. She goes on the say that they were never meant to help tuck messy emotions into neat packages. We can apply some of the stages of grief to C in that she has experienced anger, mainly at herself for putting her children in a position where violence was occurring in her relationship and being in a place emotionally where she felt she needed drugs and alcohol to cope but mainly not being the parent that her children deserved. She has experienced an initial denial when the children were first placed with social services and again when they were put up for adoption and she has experienced depression. In relation to the baby that died the stages of grief can be seen although not in their entirety, some denial or disbelief may have been present when she received the diagnosis of Edwards syndrome, however, from her disclosures it seems quite matter of fact, the baby was ill and a deci

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