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Potential threats to reliability and validity

Select another one of the sources collected for your research proposal. Identify potential threats to reliability and validity in this study and discuss how the authors addressed these either in their research design or in the conclusions that they drew about their findings. What recommendations do you have for improving the design?

Sample Solution

g 250,000 bolivars (£2.80) , a 67% increase from the previous minimum wage – 150,000 bolivars. Alongside this, he implemented a food bonus of 200,000 bolivars (Quartz 2020) – that goes for individuals who are actually employed. It was predicted that Venezuela’s unemployment rate would have reached 50% by this year.. Venezuela’s unemployment rate – referring to the segment of the labour force actively seeking and able to undergo employment, without work – was forecasted to be 44.337% during the December period of 2019. An almost 10% increase since the year prior illustrating the apparent negative impact inflation has on employment (CEIC 2019). In the short term, individuals are likely to supply labour despite the acceleration in inflation due to the higher wages. According to the Phillips curve, inflation and unemployment maintain an inverse relationship meaning low levels of unemployment correspond to higher levels of inflation and high unemployment corresponds to lower levels of inflation – potentially deflation. Logically, this makes sense as high unemployment would put a downward pressure on prices of goods and reduce inflation. This is because a lack of income makes excess expenditure less permissive. However, in the case of Venezuela, it differs. Venezuela is undergoing extremely high inflation as well as relatively high unemployment rates. When unemployment is high, the supply for labour is traditionally greater than the demand for it, as the number of individuals seeking work significantly exceeds the number of jobs available. Therefore, increasing wages as a means of employers bidding for the service of employees is unnecessary – and so wages remain stagnant during inflation periods. As Venezuela demonstrates, an economy can encounter high inflation alongside low economic growth at one time. Several technical explanations can be proposed with regards to why the country’s economic growth is in deficit. A primary one being the concept of demand-pull inflation which comes about as a result of the demand for goods surpassing the supply available. However, no fundamental increase in aggregate demand was displayed in the case of Venezuela. Instead, the supply fell considerably short. The lack of foreign currency reserves lead to the inability to import fundamental commodities beyond a particular point causing a demand-pull inflation. What’s more, producers increased the prices of their goods and services in order to relay the increased production costs. This is referred to as cost-pull inflation. The lack of ability to secure imports in Venezuela contributed to the rise in production costs. This played a role in the further hindrance of Venezuela’s domestic production (Profolus 2018). Under Maduro’s regulation, the money supply and minimum wage were increased, in attempt to manage consumer spending capabilities, as already discussed. The monetary explanation – is partially applicab

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