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Principlism, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values. How would you rank the importance of each of the four principles? How do you believe they would be ordered in the context of the Christian biblical narrative? Refer to the topic overview and other topic study materials in your response.

Sample Solution

language could be written, and includes a variety of pictographic styles: a mixture of emojis, emoticons and symbols. The pictograms come from mostly digital culture, and so for a computer literate reader, are understood. Xu’s work also followed the ideas of semiosis and how it […] ‘is not a one-way process with a fixed meaning. It is part of an active process between the sign and the reader of the sign.’ (Crow.D, 2016. p.38). If interpretation is an active part of language, how does it develop within a culture? Book From the Ground Up communicates using digital language, for a book to function universally would it need to start from scratch or piece together symbols from different cultures and societies? fig.8 Book from the Ground: From Point-to-Point (Xu.B, 2014) Directed to art, interpretation means plucking a set of elements (the X, the Y, the Z, and so forth) from the whole work. The task of interpretation is virtually one of translation. The interpreter says, Look, don’t you see that X is really – or, really means – A? That Y is really B? That Z is really C? (Sontag.S, 1966. pg.3). Sontag argues that ‘plucking’ parts from an artwork prevents the viewer from considering the piece as a whole. In the sense of a pictogram, would reading certain marks and shapes separately obstruct understanding? Meteorologists communicate things like weather patterns through symbols (fig.11). Like Xu Bing, they combine symbols to develop or change the meaning; an asterisk means snow and an upside down triangle means storm, so together a snowstorm (Nigel Holmes, 2017). If interpreted in parts it means two different things. Does this hinder a universal visual language, or create a flexibility to understand the same symbol in alternative ways? During the 60s and 70s Charles K. Bliss developed a communication system called Blissymbolics. It is a language formed through pictograms and ideograms, a mixture of both literal and abstract characters (Blissymbolics, 2017). Many of the symbols are interchangeable and can mean many different things. An arrow pointing away from a door means exit, but when pointed inwards means entrance (fig.12). Pictorial symbols can be used in associative ways according to the writer, but how transferable is a pictogram or ideogram to the reader? A wavy line (fig.13) could mean smoke when positioned vertically above an image of a house, or water if placed horizontally. (Holmes.N, 2016). As with Isotype in Nigeria, society, culture and infrastructure looked different, so a representational pictogram would need to

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