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Rapid Critical Appraisal of Evidence

The steps correspond to those found in the Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt text (3rd edition–>Chapters 1-3; Steps Summary pp. 10-16; 4th edition–>Chapters 1-3; Steps Summary pp. 16-24).

Step 1: Begin by specifying your PICOT question the group is using for the poster. This could be one from a previous nursing situation paper.
——Intervention PICOT question: In school-age children (P), what is the impact of a school-based physical activity program (I) on reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity (O) compared to home-based exercises (C) within two years (T)?

Step 2: Search for the Best Evidence. All group members must keep track of the search terms, the number of data sources, the process of inclusion and exclusion. It is expected that there are two reviewers/appraisers for each source of evidence. An evidence search is a focused and ordered approach and you should include a flow diagram that specifies the number of records to the final N for appraisal.

Step 3: Conduct a Rapid Critical Appraisal of Evidence.
1.For this assignment, each member of the assigned group will be responsible for searching, appraising, and summarizing literature on the chosen topic. Each person will report on 2 sources of evidence (Current within the past 5 years). Sources of evidence include research studies, clinical guidelines, consensus/position statements, meta-syntheses, meta-analyses, and literature reviews). As a reminder, be sure to select the highest level of evidence possible and this is determined by the hierarchy of evidence. For this assignment, you are required to include at least one of the three major types of evidence literature: systematic review, research study, and standards and guidelines

2.Appraisal. The Rapid Appraisal Critical Appraisal Checklists are located in Appendix B of Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt text (3rd edition–>Appendix B; 4th edition–>Appendix B). Select the Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist that fits the evidence type.

  1. Evaluation Table: Prepare an Evaluation Table to compare the literature (see Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 3rd edition–>p. 552 for the template; 4th edition–> pp. 724- 725) that includes the strengths and weaknesses of the literature, and the recommendations for practice based on the quality and levels of evidence presented in the paper. The background should be supported with relevant literature (current within the past 5 years and from professional literature/websites) to support the description of the problem and its significance to nursing and to patients.

To help you with the summary, refer to the Hierarchy of Evidence for Intervention/Treatment Questions (see Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt 3rd edition, p. 11; 4th edition, p. 18 ).

  1. Prepare an abstract of 150-200 words.
  2. Prepare a poster. The 4 X 5 poster PowerPoint slide is to include the following elements: abstract, picot question, brief nursing situation, background, plan flow diagram for literature selection/ rejection, major points (with citations) from the evaluation of literature table, implications for practice, and recommendations for research, and (implications for health policy as appropriate to the topic).

The Cochrane Collaboration adopted definitions that are specified in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, known as PRISMA. Take a moment to review the PRISMA statement http://www.prisma-statement.org/PRISMAStatement/ (Links to an external site.) The use of PRISMA to systematize the review process provides order and greater consistency in reporting the current evidence. A key feature is the use of the PRISMA flow diagram. As a reminder, a flow diagram that specifies the number of database records and than drills down to the final total used in the systematic review and the metaanalysis.

Sample Solution

Chinese militarization in the Spratly Islands has proven much more contentious in recent years as they have seen both rapid island reclamation as well as the introduction of unprecedented military capabilities. Moreover, the Spratly Islands are contested by China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines and Malaysia, and all have established constructions on some of the islands. China has been by far the most active in the expanding and equipping its islands, including the construction of large anti-aircraft guns. Experts also suspect that close-in weapons systems (CIWS) have been introduced to some of the islands to protect against cruise missile strikes. The placement of these defences shows how China is willing to defend these islands and are prepared to respond in the case of an attack. Of the islands China has developed, Fiery Cross, Mischief and Subi Reefs are the by far the most advanced (see Figure 3). Each has enough hangars to accommodate 24 combat aircraft and four larger transport planes, bunkers to house missile launchers, as well as radars that allow for the monitoring of the surrounding area (AMTI 2017). By March 2018, China had verifiably landed military transport aircraft on all three of its main islands in the Spratlys marking a major milestone in developing its military capabilities in the region. According to U.S. intelligence, China also deployed YJ-13B anti-ship cruise missiles and HQ-9B surface to air missiles on the 2nd May. Offensive capabilities such as air power, radars and missiles give China a sizable advantage in the region, causing concern for both the U.S. and other claimant countries. Overall, China’s military capabilities in the SCS are unparalleled, with Admiral Philip Davidson, Head of US Pacific Command stating that “China is now capable of controlling the South China Sea in all scenarios short of war with the United States” (CNN 2018). Figure 4 shows the observed, reported and expected capabilities China has or is likely to have from its four most equipped islands: Woody island in the Paracels and Firey Cross, Mischief and Subi Reef in the Spratlys. Once these capabilities are fully operational, China will have comprehensive control over the region. This military capacity gives China the upper hand in diplomacy and as of present, has granted it immunity from abiding to international arbitration. Further militarization has shown China’s commitment to its sovereignty claims and the lack of commitment it has to abiding by UNCLOS. The long-standing failure to comply with international l
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