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Research Analysis on Kraft Heinz

IMPORTANT: You will complete some (but not all) of the activities from the Exercise Physiology lab handout,
and additionally you will complete some extra activities that are described below. See list below.
Some of these tests will be easier if you have someone to help you out, but you can also do most everything
on your own.
Once you have completed the activities below, write a Discussion of your results. Your Discussion should be no
less than 300 words.
Use the Exercise Physiology lab to help you write your Discussion! It has many tables that will allow you to
compare your results to average scores.
Some things to keep in mind for your Discussion:
Insights are provided into the wider implications of the results
Possible reasons for significant discrepancies are suggested and specific
Conclusion is clearly and logically drawn from data provided
A logical chain of reasoning from data to conclusions is clearly and persuasively explained
Conflicting data, if present, are adequately addressed
Complete the following activities:
Take notes and record your results for each test. You will need this for your Discussion.
Calculate BMI (described in the lab lab handout)
One minute timed sit-ups (described in the lab lab handout)
Push-up test (described in the lab lab handout)
PA-R score (described in the lab lab handout)
Flexibility Measurement – Trunk Lift (described below)
Measure your trunk length.
Sit in a firm chair with your chin level.
Measure the distance from the tip of your nose to the seat of the chair.
Lie face down on the floor and place both hands under your hips.
Lift your trunk as high as possible off the floor.
Record the difference between the floor and the tip of your nose.
Perform three trials.
To calculate your score, subtract your best trial from your trunk length.
Use the table below to get a flexibility rating.
Men Poor Fair Average Good Excellent
Trunk flexion 10.25 or more 10-8.25 8-6.25 6-3.25 3 or less
Trunk flexion 10 or more 9.75-8 7.75-6 5.75-2.25 2 or less
Cardiovascular Endurance – The Step Method (visit link for description)
The Measurable Elements of Physical Fitness and Wellness
As a fitness professional or if you are working within the field of physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation, you
need to master the basic principles and techniques of fitness and health assessment. The results are obtained
by this type of assessment will allow you to scientifically develop sound exercise programs to meet the
client/patient needs, interests, and abilities. These tests are also essential for monitoring the effectiveness of
the exercise program.
When defining physical fitness, it is important to identify the components that can be measured, defined, and
developed separately from each other. Physical fitness components can be broken down into two major
categories: health-related fitness components and skill-related components.
Health-related fitness includes the essential parts of a fitness profile. This includes cardiorespiratory
endurance, body composition, flexibility, musculoskeletal strength, and musculoskeletal endurance. Skillrelated components include agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, and reaction time. 
To begin the lab, the first thing that needs to be determined is whether the subject (you) is at low, medium, or
high risk for cardiovascular or metabolic disease. To assess this, complete the health assessment and
determine your risk factor according to the chart. If you are low risk or moderate risk, you will complete the lab
individually in class. However, if you fall into the high risk category OR if you know of a medical reason not to
participate in this lab, please let the instructor know. You will participate in the lab by helping gather data for
others and you will be allowed to use another individual’s results for this lab.
Body Measurements
An important component of fitness and health assessment is body measurements, which are commonly used
in two major ways. The first use of body measurements is to determine waist to hip ratios and to help calculate
BMI. The other major use of body measurements is to record the measurements for comparison at a later date.
Either at home or in the lab, use a flexible tape measure to record the following eight body measurements.

  1. Neck – Standing, measure your neck at its largest girth, right over the Adam’s apple.
  2. Shoulder – Standing and can either be measured as a straight line from the largest points on each shoulder
    across the chest or as a girth measurement all the way around the body.
  3. Chest – Standing, measure with breathe out just above the nipple.
  4. Biceps – Measure at its largest girth, can be taken relaxed with arms at side, relaxed with arm bent, flexed
    with arm bent or all three.
  5. Waist – Standing, measure at the narrowest point or at the midway point between the top of the hip bone and
    the bottom of the rib cage.
  6. Hips – Measure at the largest girth, where the butt is protruding the greatest.
  7. Thigh – Standing, measure at the largest girth, just below the butt.
  8. Calf – Seated if you are measuring yourself or standing if you have a partner, measure at its largest girth.
    Neck __________Shoulder_________
    Chest __________Biceps ___________
    Thigh __________Calf _____________
    From these measurements, two important indices can be calculated. The first, BMI or body mass index is a
    number calculated with reference to an individual’s weight and height. This number can then be used
    estimated health and to predict and estimate VO2max.
    To calculate BMI, use the following formula:
    BMI = mass (kg) BMI: _
    Height2 (m)
    For classification, see the chart on the bottom of the page.
    Another important relationship which can be calculated is the waist/hip ratio. This is a simple equation and is
    one that can be used to estimated health.
    WHR = waist circumference
    hip circumference WHR: ___

    When the WHR is greater than 0.94 in males or 0.86 in females, the individual is at greater risk for health risks
    associated with obesity.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Aerobic Fitness/Maximal Oxygen Consumption)
    Energy for human movement is primarily derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats from the
    energy carrier molecule adenosine triphosphate, ATP. ATP can either be formed from anaerobic and/or aerobic
    pathways to fuel the body tissues with energy during physical activity.
    When we look at the increasing demands of energy needs for sustained period, we must look at how the body
    adapts to the changing demands. Cardiorespiratory fitness is defined as the boy’s ability to adapt to increasing
    energy production over a prolonged period of time. For the body to facilitate and increase in energy production,
    the cardiovascular system responds by increasing cardiac output (through increases in heart rate and stroke
    volume) and reducing peripheral resistance to blood flow in the active muscle, and the respiratory system
    responds by increasing the unloading of oxygen to the active tissue.
    In the field we refer to the body’s ability to adapt to the increasing demands of activity as aerobic fitness, the
    maximal capacity to take in, transport, and utilize oxygen. Thus, it is dependent on both the cardiovascular and
    respiratory systems. Exercise physiologists measure this capacity as maximal oxygen consumption (max
    VO2). Maximal VO2 can be measure in either absolute values directly related to body size (L/min or ml/min) or
    in relative values that consider body weight (ml/kg/min). Thus relative VO2 may change due to an increase in
    functioning of the cardiorespiratory system and /or the loss or gain of body weight.
    Types of Maximal Oxygen Consumption Tests
    In clinical and research laboratories, max VO2 is measured directly through a maximal oxygen consumption
    test. These tests require expensive equipment and experienced personnel (including a physician).
    During a max VO2 test, the subject begins by performing a brief warm-up. Then, through a mouthpiece, they
    are hooked up to an air analyzer that measures both oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide expired. The
    subject then performs an exercise test on a treadmill (or ergometer) in which the test protocol increases the
    workload until the subject can no longer perform the task (complete fatigue). Since it is expensive and difficult
    to perform, the submaximal test was developed to estimate VO2 max.
    Through research, there have been many submaximal protocols developed to estimate max VO2 by
    performing at lower intensities than maximal effort. These tests were developed on the assumptions that
    steady state heart rates can be measured at any given exercise intensity and there is a linear relationship
    between heart rate/oxygen consumption and workload. This means as workload increase, there should be an
    increase in heart rate and oxygen consumption. Most submaximal VO2 tests use protocols similar to the
    maximal test, just terminating as a predetermined heart rate or intensity.
    Types of Submaximal Oxygen Consumption Tests
    Depending on the facilities available you will have many options for measuring submaximal VO2. They range 
    from utilizing very sophisticated equipment to field tests that are great for use with large groups or if you only
    have a stopwatch.
    The field test is a simple, inexpensive protocol that estimates aerobic fitness. Since all that is usually needed is
    a stopwatch, an area that has a predetermined distance, and the ability to accurately measure post exercise
    heart rate. These tests can use walking, running, swimming, cycling, or bench stepping as the mode of
    exercise. Please note that these types of tests are not used diagnostically, but just to evaluate aerobic fitness.
    Prediction of VO2 max:
    Maximal VO2 is a way to assess physical fitness before starting an exercise program so exercise programming
    can be specific to a individual. Even without completing a field test, one can mathematically predict VO2max.
    Developed by Jackson, et al (1990) the researchers used factors such as age, gender, BMI or percent body fat,
    and a ranking of physical activity to predict VO2max. This mathematical model is called the N-EX.
    Now determine your PA-R score from page 16:
    PA-R Score:
    Now calculate your predicted max VO2 using the following N-EX BMI Model Equation:
    Female equation:
    VO2 max (ml/kg/min) = 56.363 + 1.921 (PA-R score) – 0.381 (age) – 0.754 (BMI)
    Male equation:
    VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 67.350 + 1.921 (PA-R score) – 0.381(age) – 0.754(BMI)
    Predicted VO2 max: _______

    Experiment One:
    Estimation of Max VO2 using a submaximal field test
    UKK Institute of Finland (Kukkonen-Harjula, et al, 1998)
    For this field test, the client will walk 2 kilometers as fast as they can, while maintaining a speed that allows
    them to compete the 2km. Measure the time need for completion of the 2km walk and heart rate at the end of
    the test. Using that data, estimate VO2 max using the appropriate equation as follows:
    Female equation:
    VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 116.2 – 2.98(time) -0.11(heart rate) – 0.14(age) – 0.39(BMI)
    Male equation: 
    VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 184.0- 4.65(time) -022(heart rate) – 0.26 (age) – 1.05 (BMI)
    1.5 Mile Run Test (George, et al, 1993)
    For the 1.5 mile run/walk test, have your client run 1.5 miles as fast as they can. Measure the time needed for
    completion of the 1.5 mile run. Using that data, estimate vo2max from the following equation:
    VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 88.02 -0.1656 (weight in kg) -2.76(time in minutes-seconds in decimal form) + 3.716
    (gender: male=0, female=1)
    Calculate Estimated VO2max from submaximal field test:
    Time:________Heart Rate: ____
    Age _________BMI __________
    Weight (kg) _
    Estimated VO2max (ml/kg/min) = ___________________

    Standard Values for VO2 max in mL/kg/min (Gettman, 1987)

Sample Solution

Recruitment took place at the beginning of a class period after permission had been granted by the instructor. The researcher then explained the goals of the study and distributed individual sign-up sheet to preserve the anonymity of the participants. Any student who wished to participate was welcome. The researcher hoped to recruit at least 15 participants in each section of the French phonetics course to meet the requirement for representativeness, but due to lack of enrollment, there were only 7 participants per group. The qualitative data from the participants provided rich enough data to obtain a credible picture and ensure saturation. Thus the requirements for the representativeness/saturation trade-off was met. Both groups received the same instruction in French phonetics and pronunciation. The phonetics course was held every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for fifty minutes. Fridays were dedicated to lab work, while Mondays and Wednesdays were lectures. At the University of Illinois, French pronunciation is taught following an explicit methodology. Each phonological feature is explained in detail according to the manner of pronunciation: tongue position, jaw position, lips, etc. Data Collection Before the first phonological feature was taught, the participants completed the pre-test (Time 1). The post-test (Time 2) was completed after the instruction of the features. Both pre-test and post-test included two types of reading/recording exercises: a short text and short sentences (created by the researcher), targeting specific phonological features of French: /y/ vs. /u/, or the “silent e” (or schwa). While reading the texts and sentences, each participant was required to record themselves at Time 1 and at Time 2. The recordings took place in the phonetics laboratory at the University of Illinois, where participants can be monitored. The researcher asked the students to record themselves only once to control for repeated recordings, which may allow the students to modify their pronunciation.

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