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Significant causes of type 2 diabetes

Response 1

Obesity is one of the significant causes of type 2 diabetes, and also it appears to be related to aging, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic influence. Type 2 diabetes develops when the receptor cells have become less sensitive to the insulin—this insulin resistance results in less sugar being removed from the blood because the beta-cells cannot secrete sufficient insulin to keep up with demand (Le Gresley et al., 2021). On the other hand, type 1 diabetes is primarily due to the autoimmune-mediated destruction of the pancreatic beta-cell leading to insulin deficiency (Mishra & Ndisang, 2014). Juvenile diabetes is also called type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is most commonly diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. Diet and lifestyle habits do not cause type 1 diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). Type 1 diabetes means using insulin. Because the body no longer makes this hormone. One has to take insulin several times during the day, including with meals. However, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can be managed by healthy eating and exercise first. If the blood sugar is not well controlled, they may also need to use oral medications and insulin injection treatment (National Institutes of Health, 2016).Gestational diabetes (GD) is a serious pregnancy complication and type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. In most circumstances, this hyperglycemia is the consequence of impaired glucose tolerance. Risk factors for GD include overweight and obesity, advanced maternal age, and family history of any form of diabetes. In addition, GD includes an increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and macrosomia, and birth complications in the infant (Plows et al., 2018).Oral Medication of Type 2 DiabetesMost medications for type 2 diabetes are oral drugs. One good example of oral medication is a biguanide, and the most common is Metformin. Metformin helps control the amount of sugar in the blood by decreasing intestinal glucose absorption and how much glucose is made in the liver. Metformin comes as a liquid, a tablet, and an extended-release (long-acting) form. The diabetic pills are taken by mouth and should be every day around the same time (National Library of Medicine, 2020).Usual Adult Dose for Oral MetforminStart on a low dose of PO Metformin 500 mg twice a day or 850 mg once a day. Then, gradually increase in 500-850 mg does not more often than once every 1–2 weeks. The maintenance dose will be 2000 mg/day in divided doses, and the maximum dose is 2550 mg/day. The extended-release tablet usually takes 500-100 mg daily with the evening meal. An increase in 500 mg increments weekly as tolerated and with a maximum dose of 2000 mg/day. Swallow metformin extended-release tablets whole, not split, chew, or crush (, 2020).Dietary ConsiderationsThe primary purpose in the management of diabetes is to achieve as near normal regulation of blood glucose (postprandial and fasting) as possible. The total amount of carbohydrates consumed have the most substantial influence on the glycemic response (American Diabetes Association, 2019). Carbohydrate intake should emphasize nutrient-dense carbohydrate sources high in fiber, including vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Less refined grains, red/processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages Short-term and Long Term Complications of Type 2 DiabetesShort-term complications of type 2 diabetes are hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose) and are one of the most common short-term effects. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) are consuming more carbohydrates or sugar than your body can handle can sometimes cause hyperglycemia. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is very high blood glucose and can lead to coma and death. More short-term complications include increased thirst and urination, blurred vision, fatigue, and headache (Inspira Health, 2019).Diabetic individuals have a mortality rate twice that of the general healthy individuals. Long-term complications include damage to large (macrovascular) and small (microvascular) blood vessels. In addition, many affected populations are at high risk of developing diabetes-related complications such as myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, retinopathy, nephropathy, arterial diseases, and neuropathy, leading to amputation (Laursen et al., 2017).Type 2 diabetes medication therapy sometimes stops working after months or years with an unknown cause. However, a single medication may be effective before, especially if someone developed diabetes just recently. On the other hand, one may need combination oral therapy when having diabetes for a long time and take more than 20 units of insulin each day (American Diabetes Association, n.d.). For example, a biguanide and a sulfonylurea may be taken together. Although multiple oral diabetic medications are costly and the risk of side effects increases, combination therapy can improve blood sugar, and taking only a single pill does not have the desired effects. Furthermore, in cases of severe infection or need surgery, insulin injections are taken with pills to control glucose levels (American Diabetes Association, n.d.)3APA ref

Response 2

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) guides clinical care for each classification of diabetes. ­­ADA practice recommendations cover general treatment goals, pharmacologic interventions, and guidelines. The recommendations for type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes differ because of variable underlying pathophysiology (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2017). The following paper briefly compares diabetes and offers a detailed description of gestational diabetes.

Sample Solution

factories in China to assemble its products, so Apple has to order them by other technology companies, even its competitors and then ship back to China to assemble products. This might be dangerous for Apple because other competitors, especially Samsung, will find out about Apple’s products and from there, they will develop their own products with more advanced and innovative. 3. High prices on the products. Apple has been setting expensive prices of its products, while other products made by other competitors are cheaper for customers. Especially when Apple releases iPhone X, the price of this product is very expensive, £999 for 64 GB. Customers (especially young persons such as students) might not afford to buy Apple’s products with full price, even if they are given some discounts. Apple should be aware of this because other competitors might release products with same qualities but cheaper prices. Samsung has just released Galaxy S9 with new features with cheaper price. 4. Patent infringements. Apple has been involving in some long-time patent infringement lawsuits, such as Samsung and other companies. Despite Apple has won or lost these lawsuits, it damages Apple’s reputation. Investors and customers are not happy about this. They think that Apple might copy other’s ideas illegally and bring them to develop Apple’s products. This will totally destroy the long-time reputation of Apple. 5. Competitors: Samsung, Google, HTC. Other competitors are very hard to develop new products with new features and technologies by any way. These products might be better than Apple’s products. In addition, prices of these products might be cheaper so customers might switch to their products so Apple will lose its market share. Although there are weaknesses in Apple, there are some opportunities that Apple could catch up in order to maintain the market leader: 1. Apple could develop better products if it uses weaknesses of other competitors as an advantage of Apple when it is developing new products. From there, Apple will have better products that other competitors might not have. 2. Apple could expand market by investing more on internet shopping, developin

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