Urbanization: The movement to cities and the creation of unbran indigenous identities and communities.
Re-traditionalization: The desire to use indigenous knowledges and traditions to inform and guide everyday life. IK moments
Institutionalization: Development of infrastructure of organizations in response to an designed to serve societal need
Identity reimagination: The recreation of indigenous identities based upon traditional and historic understandings.
Self-governance: The exercise of self-determination through Indigenous rights and Indigenous organizations.
Textual Transformation: the extension of knowledge transmission activities through written means, often in English, complementing the oral tradition.