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St. Petersburg, Florida’s 2021 election campaign

read the following clip from a news article about St. Petersburg, Florida’s 2021
election campaign for mayor. Based on our class discussion of minimal media effects, what
type of media frame is present in the news story? Explain your answer using the text from
the news story. [2 points]

  1. Please read the Axios article “Digital TV ads will flood living rooms during 2022 midterms”
    here (
    a. Based on our class conversation of how messages are targeted at audiences, explain how
    Digital TV ads (CTV) use the practice of microtargeting. Your answer should define
    microtargeting and explain how CTV uses the practice of microtargeting. [2 points]
    b. Explain why advertising firms are prioritizing CTV ads compared to mobile, desktop and
    tablet ads. [2 points]
    c. Thinking more about ad microtargeting, explain one potential benefit/upside of the
    targeting practice for audiences. [2 points]
    d. Thinking more about ad microtargeting, explain one potential ethical challenge/downside
    of the targeting practice for audiences. [2 points]
  2. In class, we discussed cultivation effects and mean world effects. Explain why these types of
    effects are difficult for researchers to document. Your answer should define what cultivation
    and mean world effects are and explain why these effects are difficult to document. [2
    ST. PETERSBURG, FL — The poll results are in for who would get the most votes
    in the upcoming primary mayoral election in St. Petersburg. Mayor Rick Kriseman
    will be leaving office in November since he will have reached his term limit.
    Mayoral candidate Ken Welch ranked first in the poll at 30.9 percent; followed by
    Robert Blackmon, 25.2 percent; Darden Rice, 16.4 percent; Wengay Newton, 10.3
    percent; Pete Boland, 4.2 percent; Marcile Powers, 1.4 percent; Torry Nelson, 0.8
    percent and Michael Ingram 0.7 percent

Sample Solution

There are other contingency theories that provide a more continuum based approach such as Redding’s theory of leadership and management, however Fielder’s description of how situational factors affect the leadership style required for the situation is extremely useful in understanding the fundamentals of leadership (Pettinger, 2007). Chelladurai in his Multi Dimensional Model of Leadership, expands on much of Fiedler’s theory but in a continuum based approach, in which the leader can adapt their leadership style to fit the situation (Chelladurai and Madella, 2006). Chelladurai’s theory is taken from sports psychology but can be applied to an organisational scenario. It provides a much more empirical categorisation of task structure, clearly differentiating a plethora of situations that require certain leadership styles for success. Chealldurai found three characteristics that affect the leadership style required for a situation, called antecedents, they mainly expand upon Fiedler’s situational factors and leader – member relations and ultimately affect how a leader should behave towards a situation. The first are situational characteristics, the environment in which the leader must perform, the second are leader characteristics, the experience, personal qualities and skills of the leader, and the third are member characteristics, the motivation, skill and experience levels of group members (Chelladurai and Madella, 2006). The situational characteristics and member characteristics have a required behaviour to ensure maximum group performance, they also have a preferred behaviour to ensure the satisfaction of group members, if the leaders actual behaviour matches both the required behaviour and preferred behaviour of the situation the consequence is maximum group performance and satisfaction. However, if the group are not performing and achieving goals or are not satisfied or both, then the leader is able to amend their actual behaviour to improve this. Leaders able to monitor performance and satisfaction, and understand what is required to amend the situation will achieve optimum group performance in Chelladurai’s model. The one limitation of Chealldurai’s model is that it assumes the leader is in a position of complete positional power over the group, and can implement any leadership style of their choosing without constraints. Positional power is the authority and influence a leader has over a group, if the leader has positional power, they will be able to implement the leadership style they best see fit for the situation. Positional power cannot be measured or quantified, making it highly ambiguous and hard for a leader to understand whether they have it or how then can gain it. It becomes the responsibility of the organisation to have policies in place to provide leaders with some positional power, usually by establishing a clear hierarchal structure. By establishing a hierarchy, the leader is perceived by the group to be able to make demands and expect compliance from them giving the leader legitimate power (French and Raven, 1959). Secondly, by providing the leader with the ability to reward compliance and punish non compliance from the group, the leader has reward and coercive power (French and

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