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Survey Design

1a: The Monitoring the Future Survey uses a cross sectional study design (as opposed to a longitudinal study design). What does this mean?

Answer: The monitoring the future survey uses a cross sectional study design which means that data is collected at one point in time on a statistical unit.

QUESTION 1b: You are working at San Diego Health and Human Services as a community health educator. You would like to begin a new project that will involve developing health education programs for teenagers to prevent substance use. But your boss is unsure if such a program is needed and asks you to provide information on if substance use has been increasing, decreasing, or staying the same among teenagers in San Diego over the last few years. Can you answer this public health question using our dataset (the 2019 Monitoring the Future Survey, 12th grade)? Why or why not?

Answer: looking at the data base, it looks like substance use has been decreasing among teenageas nationally, however looking at San Diego teenagers it is hard to tell from the data since it doesn’t give us exact data for each county therefore, it will be hard to determine if substance use is increasing, decreasing or staying the same among teenagers in San Diego but it is always a good initiative to start and develop health education programs for teenagers to spread awareness and further educate them.

QUESTION 2: Based on your output, what are the levels of measurement for each of these variables? Are any of these levels of measurement incorrect? If so, which ones? Why?

Answer: Based on our output, the levels for each variables are as follows, for sex is nominal, for race and ethnicity is nominal and for vaping marijuana in the last 30 days is nominal. The level of measurement for Vaping is incorrect because it is ranked in a hierarchical fashion in a non-numerical clear way therefore it should be ordinal.

QUESTION 4: How many of the participants are Black, white, Hispanic/Latinx? How much missing data is there on race/ethnicity?

Answer: 1262 of the participants were black or 9.2%, 6970 were white and made up 50.8% of the participants, 2538 were hispanic/latinx and made up 18.5% of the participants. 2943 or 21.5% was missing data on race/ethnicity.

QUESTION 5: How many of the participants are male, female? How much missing data is there on sex?

Answer: 6123 of participants are males and make up 44.7%, 6540 of participants are female and make up 47.7% of the participants. 1050 or 7.7% is missing data on sex.

QUESTION 6: What proportion of participants did not vape marijuana at all in the last 30 days? What proportion of data is missing on this variable?

Answer: the proportion of participants that did not vape marijuana at all in the last 30 days is 7048/13,713 which is 51.4% of all participants. The proportion of data is missing on this variable is 5399/13,713 which is 39.4%.

Sample Solution

is corrupt and dismisses him. Oedipus also ignores the advice of Tiresias. At the time of Oedipus’ rule there was a plague, capable of being ended only with the exiling of Laius’ killer. Although, unknown by Oedipus, he is the killer of Laius. In attempts to stop the plague, Oedipus asks Tiresias who the killer is. Tiresias grudgingly reveals Oedipus is Laius’ killer. Similar to Creon, Oedipus completely disregards Tiresias’ news. Oedipus then tells Tiresias that he thinks that Tiresias played part in the murder. Oedipus also blames Creon for the murder. Since Oedipus lacks trust Tiresias word, the plague remains burdensome in Thebes. Oedipus ignores prophetic word in an earlier experience with a prophet. The prophet told Oedipus that he would marry his mother and kill his father. Oedipus again ignored the prophets word. Due to the two tragic heros’ hamartia and peripeteia is later present. Sophocles is teaching the potential harm of the ignorance of cultural morals, through both tragic heros’ Peripeteia. Peripeteia is the tragic hero’s reversal of fortune, their downfall. Both Creon and Oedipus come to a life of adversity, subsequent to their actions of arrogance. After Creon ignores the prophet, his life rapidly fell downhill. The Chorus speaks up, and eventually convinces Creon to follow the Tiresias’ words. However, by the time Creon sets out to undo his actions it is to late. Creon hurry’s over to free Antigone from her death place. The messenger expresses the news to Eurydice, “His panic sent is flying to the cave, and in the farthest corner we could see her hanging with a moose of linen around her neck” (Sophocles 246). Antigone killed herself because the sole point to the rest her life was to die. So when Creon arrives he is too late to save Antigone. If Creon had followed the cultural moral to listen to the prophet, he would have been able to save Antigone. As the prophet said misfortune will come if Creon’s actions aren’t undone. Immediately after the discovery of Antigone’s death, Haemon attempts to kill Creon. Although, Haemon fails, and then stabs himself. Eurydice listens to the news from the messenger, and oddly walks back to the palace expressing no emotion. The messenger follows her to find out that she also commit suicide. All of Creon’s hardships come as a result of ignoring cultural morals Creon started Antigone living lavishly with his family. In the end of Antigone, Creon a man hated by gods, and lacking in a family. OedIpus also experiences Peripeteia because of his ignorance of a prophet. Oedipus’ prophecy was that he will be the killer of his father and the husband of his wife. Oedipus completely ignores his prophecy and proceeds to kill a man, later to find out that it was his father. Oedipus also marries the Queen of Thebes, Jocasta, with no hesitation, or thought of the possibility of marrying his mother. Oedipus then has children with Jocasta, with no regard to his Prophecy. After Oedipus and Jocasta discover they are mother and Son Jocasta kills herself. Similar to Creon, Oedipus starts as a king, but ends with a life of adversity. Oedipus ends the story as blind, the killer of his father, and the husband of his mother. Again, Sophocles teaches the readers the importance of cultural moral by expressing the consequences of ignoring them. At the end of each story Oedipus and Creon recognize their horrish situation and experience Catharsis. Sophocles teaches the audience of the importance of cultural morals through Oedipus and Creon’s catharsis. Catharsis is when the tragic hero accepts his consequences, teaching truth. The audience identifies and learns from the tragic hero’s downfall. After discovering Eurydice commit suicide, Creon tells the chorus, “I killed her, I can own no alibi: the guilt is wholly mine” (Sophocles 251). Creon recognizes that his situation was solely caused by himself. Creon realizes that the cause of his hardships are rooted from his arrogance. Creon understands that he sho

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