Ethics for Dummies, by Panza & Potthast, provide written answers to the following questions. Please give complete answers in complete sentences.
- What is a moral principle? How does it differ from a moral rule?
- What is practical reason?
- What is the difference between acting from duty and acting from inclination?
- What is the difference between acting in accord with duty and acting from duty? (Use the honest shopkeeper as an example.)
- What is the difference between heteronomy and autonomy? What is the connection between living ethically and living free?
- What is a maxim?
- What is an imperative? What is the difference between a hypothetical imperative and the categorical imperative?
- What is the Formula of Universal Law? Explain what it means.
- What is a universalizability test? (NOTE: Panza & Potthast misspell it!)
- What is the Formula of Humanity? Explain what it means.
- What is a kingdom of ends? How is the Formula of the Kingdom of Ends related to the two previous formulas?
- What do Panza & Potthast say is the difference between perfect duties and imperfect duties? (NOTE: In trying to simplify the distinction, they may miss what is essential. Note later how Mill characterizes the difference.)
- How does the Formula of Universal Law help distinguish perfect from imperfect duties? (NOTE: Panza & Potthast do a pretty good job with this.)
- What is one of the four examples of specific duties Kant uses, and how does violating it also violate the categorical imperative?
- Why might it be a problem that duties in Kantian ethics are unconditional?
- Why might it be a problem that Kantian ethics focuses on rationality (and rational beings)?