The Formula of Humanity

Ethics for Dummies, by Panza & Potthast, provide written answers to the following questions. Please give complete answers in complete sentences.

  1. What is a moral principle? How does it differ from a moral rule?
  2. What is practical reason?
  3. What is the difference between acting from duty and acting from inclination?
  4. What is the difference between acting in accord with duty and acting from duty? (Use the honest shopkeeper as an example.)
  5. What is the difference between heteronomy and autonomy? What is the connection between living ethically and living free?
  6. What is a maxim?
  7. What is an imperative? What is the difference between a hypothetical imperative and the categorical imperative?
  8. What is the Formula of Universal Law? Explain what it means.
  9. What is a universalizability test? (NOTE: Panza & Potthast misspell it!)
  10. What is the Formula of Humanity? Explain what it means.
  11. What is a kingdom of ends? How is the Formula of the Kingdom of Ends related to the two previous formulas?
  12. What do Panza & Potthast say is the difference between perfect duties and imperfect duties? (NOTE: In trying to simplify the distinction, they may miss what is essential. Note later how Mill characterizes the difference.)
  13. How does the Formula of Universal Law help distinguish perfect from imperfect duties? (NOTE: Panza & Potthast do a pretty good job with this.)
  14. What is one of the four examples of specific duties Kant uses, and how does violating it also violate the categorical imperative?
  15. Why might it be a problem that duties in Kantian ethics are unconditional?
  16. Why might it be a problem that Kantian ethics focuses on rationality (and rational beings)?

Sample Solution