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The difference between positive association and negative association

Let’s discuss the difference between positive association and negative association when describing the relationship between two variables. What do we mean by the least-square criterion? Give a general description of how the least-square criterion is involve in the construction of the least-square line. Why do we say the least-squares line is the “best-fitting” line for the data set?
Use the Internet and find a magazine or journal article in your field of major interest wherein the content of this chapter (Correlation and Regression – chapter 6) could be applied. List the variables used, method of data collection, and the general type of information and conclusion drawn.

Sample Solution

lantago lanceolata)* The other variable is time since tilling which is expressed in two treatments: 1 and 2 years since tilling. Before the crop was sown, the strip was tilled. Strip 1 was sown in April 2014. Strip 6 was first sown in October 2014 and over seeded in March 2015. Pilot study Before the actual research, a small pilot study was carried out to explore the presence of EPN’s in strip 1 and 6 in the field. Primers for Heterorhabditis and Steinernema were used. In each of the two grass-clover strips, six soil samples were taken and put together as one composite soil sample. Further methods were similar to the actual experiment. Soil sampling protocol 24 composite soil samples were taken in strip 1 and 6 (see figure 1) on October 12 and 13 2015. Per grass-clover plot, 6 stratified random samples were taken, after removing the litter layer, at 0-20 cm deep (see figure 2). Soil samples were taken with a soil gouge (diameter 13 mm). All 6 samples of one plot formed a composite soil sample, which were mixed in one bag and used for nematode extraction. Nematode extraction Following the methods from the practical guide protocol of the course ‘nematodes as biocontrol agents’ [10], nematodes were extracted from the soil with the Oostenbrink elutriator. Nematodes were obtained in a jar with 100 mL water suspension. The nematode suspensions were stored at 4°C for 14 days. After this, samples were split: 50 mL was put in a coned glass tube and 50 mL was left in the glass jars for total nematode count with the microscope [10]. Nematodes in 5 mL suspension were counted two times under the microscope. The average per sample was calculated. Lab analysis Soil samples in the coned grass tubes were washed, concentrated and a lysis was carried out [10]. In this process a known amount of control DNA was included. Next, samples were diluted 100x and a quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was performed [10]. Primers that were used are indicated in table 2. With SYBR green, double-stranded DNA could be observed over time during the Q-PCR. An amplification curve was made and the cycle threshold (Ct) values were read from the curves. The Ct values give a measure for the amount of DNA from the specific nematode group which was present at start of the Q-PCR reaction. In this way data on number of nematodes could be obtained.

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