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The Far Right Case study

‘The rise in popularity of the extreme right in the case study countries is due to the failure of the mainstream political parties to satisfy the preoccupations of their electorate’. Discuss. 8. Discuss the most important social and attitudinal characteristics that are identified with those who vote for the far right. 9. What effect, if any, have the extreme right parties had on the politics of the case study countries? 10. How important is charismatic leadership for the success of far right political parties? Please see attached additional sources. Here are some recommended readings on each country that you may find useful. FRANCE Adler, F. (2003) ‘Why Le Pen will not go away’. Telos Bar-On, Tamir (2011) ‘Transnationalism and the French Nouvelle Droite’. Patterns of Prejudice, 45 (3). Bastow, S. (1998), ‘The Radicalization of Front National Discourse: A Politics of the ‘Third Way’?’ Patterns of Prejudice, 32 (3), 55-68. Bastow, Steve (1997) ‘Front National economic policy: from neo-liberalism to protectionism’. Modern & Contemporary France, 5 (1), 61-72. Bell, D. S. (1994) ‘The French National Front’. History of European Ideas, 18 (2), 225-240. Bréchon, Pierre and Mitra, Subatra Kumar (1992) ‘The National Front in France: The Emergence of an Extreme Right Protest Movement’. Comparative Politics, 25 (1), 63-82. Camus, Jean-Yves (1992) ‘Political cultures within the Front National: The emergence of a counter-ideology on the French Far Right.’ Patterns of Prejudice, 26 (1-2), 5-16. Davies, Peter, (1999) The National Front in France: Ideology. Discourse and Power. London, Routledge De Angelis, R. A. (2003) ‘A rising tide for Jean-Marie, Jörg and Pauline ? Xenophobic populism in comparative perspective?’ Australian Journal of Politics and History, 49 (1), 75-92. De Clair, Edward G. (1999) Politics on the fringe. The people, policies, and organization of the French National Front. Duke University Press. Fauvelle-Aymar, C. and Lewis-Beck, M.S. (2005) ‘Coalition strategies and the National Front vote in French Legislative contests.’ French Politics, 3 (2), 164-177. Fysh, Peter and Wolfreys, Jim (1992) ‘Le Pen, the National Front and the Extreme Right in France’. Parliamentary Affairs, 45 (3), 309-326. Goldhammer, Arthur (2015) ‘Explaining the rise of the Front National. Political rhetoric or cultural insecurity?’ French Politics, Culture and Society, 33 (22). Hainsworth, P. and Mitchell, P. (2000) ‘France: The Front National from Crossroads to Crossroads?’ Parliamentary Affairs, 53 (3), 443-456. Husbands, Christopher T. (1991) ‘The support for the Front National: analyses and findings.’ Ethnic and Racial Studies, 14 (3), 382-416. Ignazi, P and Ysmal, Colette (1992) ‘New and old extreme right parties. The French Front National and the Italian Movimento Sociale’. European Journal of Political Research, No 22, 101-121. Levy, Deborah (1989) ‘Women of the French National Front’. Parliamentary Affairs 42 (1) 102-111. Lubbers, Marcel and Scheepers, Peer (2002) ‘French Front National voting: a micro and macro perspective’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 25 (1) pp. 120-149. Marcus, Jonathan (1995) The National Front and French Politics. Macmillan Press Ltd, UK. Mayer, Nonna (1997) ‘Vitrolles is not France!’ French Politics & Society, 15 (2), 23-26. Mayer, Nonna (2013) ‘From Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen: Electoral Change on the Far Right’. Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 160-178. Mondo, Aurelian (2013) ‘Nicolas Sarkozy’s legititmization of the Front National: background and perspectives.’ Patterns of Prejudice, 47 (1), 22-40. Mondo, Aurelien (2014) ‘The Front National in the twenty first century : From pariah to republican democratic contender ?’ Modern and Contemporary France, 22 (3), 301-320. Neocleous, M. and Startin, N. (2003) ‘ ‘Protest’ and fail to survive: Le Pen and the Great Moving Right Show.’ Politics, 23 (3), 145-155. Schain, Martin A (1987) ‘The National Front in France and the construction of political legitimacy’. West European Politics, 10 (2), 229-252. Shields, J.G. (1995) ‘The challenge of the Front National: Presidential and Municipal Elections in France.’ Patterns of Prejudice, 29 (4), 19-30. Shields, J.G. (1997) ‘La politique du pire: The Front national and the 1997 Legislative Elections.’ French Politics & Society, 15, (3), 21-36. Shields, James (2010) ‘Support for Le Pen in France: Two Elections in Trompe l’œil.’ Politics, 30 (1), 61-69. Shields, James (2013) ‘Marine Le Pen and the ‘New’ FN: A change of Style or of Substance?’ Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 179-196. Simmons, Harvey G. (1996) The French National Front: The extremist challenge to democracy. Boulder, Westview Press. Singer, Daniel (1991) ‘The resistible rise of Jean-Marie Le Pen.’ Ethnic and Racial Studies, 14 (3), 368-381. Startin, Nicholas (2014) ‘Contrasting fortunes, differing futures? The rise (and fall) of the Front National and the British National Party.’ Modern and Contemporary France, 22 (3), 277-299. Stockemer, D. (2015) ‘Introduction to the special issue: Explaining the spike in electoral support for the Front National in France’, French Politics,13 (4), 319-323. Stockemer, D. and Amengay, A. (2015) ‘The voters of the FN under Jean-Marie Le Pen and Marine Le Pen: Continuity or change?’, French Politics, 13 (4), 370-390. Wolfreys, Jim (1993) ‘’An Iron Hand in a Velvet Glove’: The Programme of the French​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​ Front National’. Parliamentary Affairs, 46 (3), 415-429. GERMANY Andersen, Robert and Zimdars, Anna (2003) ‘Class, education and extreme party support in Germany, 1991-98.’ German Politics, 12 (2), 1-23. Art, David (2007) ‘Reacting to the radical right. Lessons from Germany and Austria’. Party Politics, 13 (3), 331-349. Backes, Uwe (2006) ‘The electoral victory of the NPD in Saxony and the prospects for future extreme-right success in German elections’. Patterns of Prejudice, 40 (2). Chapin, Wesley (1997) ‘Explaining the success of the new right: The German case.’ West European Politics, 20 (2), 53-72. Dolezal, Martin; Hebling, Marc and Hutter, Swen (2010) ‘Debating Islam in Austria, Germany and Switzerland: Ethnic citizenship, church-state relations and right-wing populism’. West European Politics, 33 (2), 171-190. McGowan, Lee (2002) ‘The Radical Right in Germany, 1870 to the present.’ London, Pearson Education LTD. Minkenberg, Michael (2006) ‘Repression and reaction: militant democracy and the radical right in Germany and France’. Patterns of Prejudice, 40 (1), 25-44. Sommer, Bernd (2008) ‘Anti-capitalism in the name of ethno-nationalism: ideological shifts on the German extreme right’. Patterns of Prejudice, 42 (3). Steinbach, Anja and Gissendanner, Scott (2003) ‘Explaining geographic concentrations of discrimination in Germany: Small group interaction, youth and spatial context’. German Politics, 12 (2), 166-184. Virchow, Fabian (2004) ‘The groupuscularization of neo-Nazism in Germany: the case of the Aktionsbüro Norddeutschland’. Patterns of Prejudice, 38 (1). GREECE Clogg, Richard (2002) A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Clogg, Richard and Yannopoulos, George (1972) Greece Under Military Rule, London, Secker and Warburg. Dinas, E. Georgiadou, V. Konstantinidis, I. and Rori, L. (2016) ‘From dusk to dawn: Local party organization and party success of right-wing extremism. Party Politics, 22 (1), 80-92. Dinas, Elias (2010), ‘The Greek General Election of 2009: PASOK – The Third Generation’, West European Politics, 33 (2), 389-398. Dinas, Elias and Pori, Lambrini (2013), ‘The 2012 Greek Parliamentary Elections: Fear and Loathing in the Polls’, West European Politics, 36 (1), 270-282. Ellinas, Antonis (2010) The Media and the Far Right in Western Europe Playing the Nationalist Card, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. See ch.5: ‘Greek Nationalists: From Mainstream to the Margins?’ 125-166. Ellinas, Antonis (2012) ‘LAOS and the Greek Extreme Right since 1974’, in Andrea Mammone, Emmanuel Godin and Brian Jenkins (eds.) Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe: From Local to Transnational, Abingdon, Routledge, 124-140. Ellinas, Antonis (2013) ‘The Rise of the Golden Dawn: The New Face of the Far Right in Greece’, South European Society and Politics, in print. https://works.bepress.com/antonis_ellinas/12 Gemenis, Kostas (2010) ‘Winning Votes and Weathering Storms: The 2009 European and Parliamentary Elections in Greece’, Democracy in Theory and Practice, 46 (3), 353-362. Kouvelakis, Stathis (2011) ‘The Greek Cauldron’, New Left Review, no.72, November-December, 17-32. Margaronis, Maria (2012) ‘Fear and loathing in Athens: the rise of Golden Dawn and the far right’, The Guardian, 26 October. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/26/golden-dawn-greece-far-right Margaronis, Maria (2013) ‘Greece at boiling point’, New York Times, 10 July. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/11/opinion/global/greece-at-the-boiling-point.html?_r=0 Margaronis, Maria (2013) ‘Greece: Assassination and Responsibility’, The Nation, 19 September. https://www.thenation.com/blog/176265/greece-assassination-and-responsibility Margaronis, Maria (2013) ‘Greece: The spectacle of violence’, The Nation, 19 January. https://www.thenation.com/blog/172339/greece-spectacle-violence Margaronis, Maria (2013) ‘Rejoice with Caution: Golden Dawn Under Arrest’, The Nation, 30 September. https://www.thenation.com/blog/176422/rejoice-caution-golden-dawn-under-arrest Mavris, Yannis (2012) ‘Greece’s Austerity Election’, New Left Review, no.76, July-August, pp.95-107. Mouzelis, Nicos (1978) Modern Greece: Facets of Underdevelopment, London, Macmillan, ch.6. Triandafyllidou, Anna (2009) ‘Greek Immigration Policy at the Turn of the 21st Century. Lack of Political Will or Purposeful Mismanagement?’ European Journal of Migration and Law, 11 (2), 159-177. UNITED KINGDOM Abedi, A., & Lundberg, T. C. (2009) ‘Doomed to failure? UKIP and the organisational challenges facing right-wing populist anti-political establishment parties’. Parliamentary Affairs, 62 (1), 72-87. Cantle, T. (2012). ‘The Far Right: Rumours about Their Death Are Premature’. Parliamentary Affairs, 65 (4), 888-895. Copsey, N. (1997) ‘A Comparison between the Extreme Right in Contemporary France and Britain.’ Contemporary European History, 6 (1), 101-116. Copsey, N. (2008) ‘Contemporary British Fascism. The British National Party and the quest for legitimacy’. 2nd Ed. Basingstoke, Palgrave. Copsey, Nigel (2007) ‘Changing course or changing clothes? Reflections on the ideological evolution of the British National Party 1999-2006’. Patterns of Prejudice, 41 (1), 62-82. Copsey, Nigel and Macklin, Graham (eds.) (2011) British National Party: Contemporary Perspectives. Oxon, Routledge. Cutts, D., Ford, R. & Goodwin, M.J. (2011) ‘Anti-immigrant, politically disaffected or still racist after all? Examining the attitudinal drivers of extreme right support in Britain in the 2009 European Elections.’ European Journal of Political Research 50, 418-440. Eatwell, Roger and Goodwin, Matthew (eds.) (2010) ‘The New Extremism in 21st Century Britain’. London, Routledge. Ford, Robert and Goodwin, Matthew (2014) Revolt on the Right. Explaining support for the radical right in Britain. Oxon, Routledge. Goodwin, Matthew J. (2011) ‘New British Fascism. The rise of the British National Party.’ London, Routledge. Gottlieb, J.V. and Linehan, T.P. (Eds) (2004) The culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain. London, I.B. Tauris. John, P. and Margetts, H. (2009) ‘The Latent Support for the Extreme Right in British Politics’, West European Politics, 32 (3), 496-513. Renton, David (2005) ‘A day to make history’? The 2004 elections and the British National Party’. Patterns of Prejudice, 39 (1). Rhodes, James (2009) ‘The Banal National Party: the routine nature of legitimacy.’ Patterns of Prejudice, 43 (2), 142-160. Sta​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​rtin, Nicholas (2014) ‘Contrasting fortunes, differing futures? The rise (and fall) of the Front National and the British National Party.’ Modern and Contemporary France, 22 (3), 277-299. Thurlow, Richard (1998) Fascism in Britain: From Oswald Mosley’s Blackshirts to the National Front. 2nd Ed. London, I.B.Tauris

Sample Solution

The Masque of the Red Death is the ultimate example of how inferior humans try to overcome against their final destiny, and greatest demon: Death itself. The Prince Prospero laughs at Death "while the pestilence raged most furiously abroad…he entertained his thousand friends at a masked ball of the most unusual magnificence." (83). The prince believes that his special group of nobles is exempt from the suffering occurring around them, and can celebrate with ease. Prince Prospero imagines that he is not destined to die like the others, and so fortifies himself with false illusions that depict harmony and pleasure. These illusions, however, are all stripped away when the ebony clock chimes and "…the giddiest grew pale, and the more age and sedate passed their hands over their brows as if in confused reverie or meditation." (85) The people realize that to evade death is the greatest risk one can take, and the clock is reminding them of how futile this gesture is. When the clock's chime fades away, the people forget about their inevitable demise and go back to believing that they are invincible, only to be reminded an hour later when the clock strikes again. After midnight tolls, a ghastly figure appears who had "…out-Heroded Herod, and gone beyond the bounds of even the prince's indefinite decorum." (87). The figure is the messenger of Death himself, coming to destroy the inferior beings that do not fall beneath its supreme power. The prince is the first to die, as he was the one who believed wholeheartedly that he could evade the End. When all of the nobles are vanquished, Death gloats in silence about its triumph over those who believed they could substitute suffering for pleasure, and how it is the only dominant factor in the world. Mankind has tried to conquer its hidden demons because it is afraid of them. But despite all of the technological advances that have been made, they are still being undermined by emotional demons like jealousy, hatred, and arrogance. The human race fears these demons for they unleash the worst qualities in people, and can not be conquered by the machines that are revered so much. It is naïve of humans to believe that they can ever vanquish the demons that lurk within their souls, but they are intent on driving out any human qualities that would make them imperfect. Yet they do not realize that imperfection is humanity's greatest trait and weakness at the same time, and that these demons exist to make this fact obvious to all. Analysis This sample high school English essay sufficiently argues that when man attempts to combat fate, obsession and death, he is ultimately destroyed. The essay is simply organized, with each paragraph devoted to a short story. The paragraph on the Masque of the Red Death is the essay's strong point, perhaps because Poe's story is the most explicit about what happens when people try to combat one of these "demons."
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