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The most influential forces that formed your personal view of both curriculum and high quality instruction

Reflect upon your prior knowledge and experience with curriculum, whether it is curriculum theory, design, review, delivery, or implementation. These experiences may include your time as a student or a professional.
Discuss the most influential forces that formed your personal view of both curriculum and high quality instruction.

Sample Solution

et also discussed ways in which children of all ages learn about learning. His theories suggest ways in which small children learn through experience and are initially only able to use their own experiences in order to construct their understanding of the world around them, until learning becomes more abstract in the years a child reaches the ‘concrete operational’ stage. He argued that we hold ‘units’ of knowledge, or ‘schemata’, and that the way in which children organise these informs their view of the world. In order to take on new knowledge, we must either accommodate or assimilate that knowledge into our existing understanding. Through accommodation, new knowledge can be slotted in to existing scripts (McLeod, 2018, a). When that is not possible because the new schema does not fit, then the scripts can be moved and altered until there is a new space available for this knowledge. This process takes learners into a sense of disequilibrium which is uncomfortable. The learner uses either accommodation or assimilation to embed the new knowledge, and can again reach a sense of equilibrium (McLeod, 2018, a). Lev Vygotsky put forward a key theory of cognitivism, the ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ (ZPD), which explains that there is a gap between what a child can do on their own, and what they can learn to do with assistance. Interestingly, although Vygotsky discussed the concept of the ZPD, he didn’t coin the terminology. This was first mentioned in 1976 by Wood, Bruner and Ross (McLeod, 2018, b) Vygotsky used the term ‘scaffolding’ to explain the ways in which teachers can bridge this gap. It should be noted that his aim here is not for the teacher to do the work for the students but to offer enough assistance so that they can learn to do more than they would have been able to do without that help (Garhart 2013). In educational settings, there are many ways in which scaffolding takes place. Examples of these may be as simple as sentence starters for written answers or modelling an activity prior to students beginning it. Scaffolding can also be peer-to-peer, with the student who has a better understanding of the subject matter providing the scaffolding. Bloom’s Taxonomy is an example of how cognitive theory allows for learning to be scaffolded, with different levels of the taxonomy asking for increasing levels of recall, understanding, application of current knowledge and then evaluative thought. Later versions of Bloom’s Taxonomy included creativity as an alternative to evaluation, which is more appropriate in some subject areas than others. Yet another method of scaffolding is proposed by Bruner, in his Spiral Curriculum Model (Bruner, 1960). He proposed that pupils benefit from going over the same
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