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a child’s, sometimes incessant, crying, or of a mother’s, sometimes coddling, hovering. However, I do wonder how we can be sure that this control system is based solely on proximity, because certainly this system is not as simple as the temperature control system. This attachment control system depends on the mother’s hormones, mother/child’s emotions and on contextual information, if they are in a familiar/unfamiliar or safe/unsafe context; we cannot oversimplify it by saying that it functions as a machine but applying the control systems approach does indeed help clarify certain forms of behavior. 4. Why do we need a hedonic/incentive system? Why isn’t homeostatic control sufficient? A hedonic system serves to put forth goal-directed actions. Homeostatic control, on the other hand, would not keep getting activated if it is already stable, or nearly stable, as its purpose is reducing error signals to maintain within an acceptable range from the set reference signal. Whereas, hedonic systems activate every time we “like” or “want” something. According to Berridge and Kringelbach’s paper: Pleasure Systems in the Brain” hedonic/incentive systems have evolutionary origins. They argue that these hedonic system reactions were selected by evolution due to their functions related to survival. For instance, it is due to hedonic systems that we are able to selectively choose the food we eat and are able to discover what we like and do not like, via orofacial “liking” responses. Due to this, we are able to consume the more energy dense foods and also choose the ones most appealing to us. However, if we would just use Homeostatic control, we would consume enough food to reduce our energy deficiency without considering what we would consume. If we consider that homeostatic control would simply make us consume enough food, we would not be taking into consideration calorie intake or even if a food is of our liking or not. Thanks to pleasure systems, monkeys, humans and even rats are able to display orofacial responses of liking and disgust, which serve to classify foods we should consume and ones we should not. Thinking evolutionarily, this could have begun as the ability to discern, based on taste or smell, if any berries or food sources were safe to consume or not. Thus, the ability to activate the pleasure system would allow animals to differentiate edible foods and venomous foods. If these animals did not develop this system, they would only have they homeostatic control system, which would elicit food consumption behavior regardless of the item, which ends up being counter-intuitive if the item provokes disgust or even worse-if it is poisonous. This is one of the main ways in which having the hedonic system provides the animal characteristics that increase its survival, making it more fit, over the ones that just have homeostatic control. According to Berridge, what most probably occurred over time was that this system increased fitness and thus was passed on by the process of selection and eventually it just became part of our current systems and now, has become a part of our emotional expressions as well. 5. Elaborate on Ernst Mayr’s statement based on what you learned in class. Ernst Mayr underscores one of the main argumentative conflicts
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