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The structure of the Earth

Study the recorded lecture then enter key essential mineralogy in text boxes provided 
Teaching week 3
Polar wandering

The table below shows age and paleo-latitude for continental lithosphere (cratons) [X], [Y] and [Z]. Craton [Z] is located to the present day west of your map area. The age data (taken from a variety of sedimentary and igneous rocks) is generally considered accurate +/-3 Ma. The paleo-latitude estimates are reported accurate +/- 1.5°.
a) Plot the apparent polar wandering curves for the three cratons on a single excel graph.
b) State the time duration(s) (if any) when you consider there is circumstantial evidence for a potential supercontinent (i.e. all three cratons joined).
c) Outline the key assumptions that you have made in reaching this interpretation.
d) What evidence would you seek to confirm your interpretation(s).

age (Ma) Craton X age (Ma) Craton Y age (Ma) Craton Z
900 18 890 41 850 42
850 22 850 43 810 37
812 24 790 34 708 31
703 28 700 31 660 30
690 30 612 33 590 32
620 32 567 29 563 32
560 30 490 36 460 35
425 24 421 41 359 34
390 23 362 37 299 36
365 21 290 32 270 33
295 31 270 34 195 40
272 33 230 36 179 38
220 35 183 42 167 44
180 40 110 43 90 39
110 26 87 39 67 40
90 23 67 34 64 40
60 32 60 33 60 41


Teaching week 3
Polar wandering

Teaching week 4
Seafloor spreading

Overleaf You are provided with magnetic data from the Southern Oceans, taken across the plate boundary between two hypothetical plates. Before starting the questions you will note the following
Rate of Spreading = distance the sea floor moved / length of time or R = d/t Generally expressed as cm/yr. 1 km = 1000m. Half-rate (velocity) of sea floor spreading = (distance / time = velocity in cm/year), total rate (velocity) of sea floor spreading = (2 X half-rate = total spreading rate)

Study the map of the area provided and the associated table for the four transects made by the ship and marked on the map. Note that the ship only actually records the anomaly pattern directly beneath its path of travel. Also ignore the boreholes (marked with numbered crosses) at this stage

  1. Find the polar reversal that occurred 2 million years ago on survey line A and determine how far the reversal is from the ridge in km
  2. Determine half-rate velocity c) given the calculated rate of spreading, would you expect seafloor spreading to be accomplished primarily by magmatic or amagmatic extension and why ?
    3) Determine the horizontal distance between the ridge in survey line A and B.
    4) Describe the likely nature of the geological structure between survey lines A and B, using appropriate terminology
    5) What differences in seafloor basement bathymetry between Survey lines A and B would you expect to occur in support your interpretation, and why ?
    6) Suggest why Survey D crosses the ridge twice, (note the ship only measures polarity directly beneath the ship, i.e. the lines drawn extend further than the ship can actually see.  
    Km
    Survey line A km Survey line B km Survey line C km Survey line D
    0 Normal 800 Reversed 1600 Reversed 1200 Normal
    60 Reversed 920 Normal 1640 Normal 1240 Reversed
    80 Normal 1000 Reversed 1720 Reversed 1360 Normal
    220 Reversed 1040 Normal 1760 Normal 1400 Reversed
    300 Normal 1100 Reversed 1820 Reversed 1420 Normal
    380 Reversed 1200 Normal 1920 Normal 1600 RIDGE
    580 Normal 1240 Reversed 1960 Reversed 1780 Reversed
    780 Reversed 1360 Normal 2080 Normal 1800 Normal
    800 Normal 1420 Reversed 2140 Reversed 1840 Reversed
    860 Reversed 1440 Normal 2160 Normal 2080 Normal
    920 Normal 1600 RIDGE 2300 RIDGE 2120 Reversed
    1080 Reversed 1780 Reversed 2480 Reversed 2140 Normal
    1100 Normal 1800 Normal 2500 Normal 2320 RIDGE
    1240 Reversed 1860 Reversed 2560 Reversed 2500 Reversed
    1320 Normal 1960 Normal 2680 Normal 2520 Normal
    1400 Reversed 2020 Reversed 2720 Reversed 2540 Reversed
    1460 Normal 2120 Normal 2820 Normal 2680 Normal
    1640 Reversed 2180 Reversed 2900 Reversed 2720 Reversed
    1680 Normal 2220 Normal 2940 Normal 2820 Normal
    1760 Reversed 2300 Reversed 3020 Reversed 2900 Reversed
    1860 Normal 2380 Normal 3120 Normal 2920 Normal
    1900 Reversed 2400 END OF LINE 3180 Reversed 3020 Reversed
    2020 Normal 3200 Normal 3100 Normal
    2060 Reversed 3280 Reversed 3140 Reversed
    2100 Normal 3380 Normal 3160 Normal
    2280 RIDGE 3460 END OF LINE 3240 END OF LINE
    2460 Reversed
    2500 Normal
    2540 Reversed
    2660 Normal
    2700 Reversed
    2800 Normal
    2860 Reversed
    2900 Normal
    2980 Reversed
    3080 Normal
    3100 END OF LINE

Teaching week 4
Seafloor spreading

Teaching week 5 Oceanic lithosphere

Sediment thickness

Drill Site number
537 0.5m
538 214m
539 404m
540 610m
541 800m
542 220m

Plot the Borehole data from sites 537,538,539,540,541 on a graph showing sediment thickness (to top of basement) against distance from ridge axis. Now plot Site 542 as a separate point.
b) Explain why the sediment thickness increases from Sites 537 to 540, and why 537 & 542 are so different, despite the close proximity.
c) The uppermost sediments from Sites 537,538 and 542 are rich in calcareous sediments of planktonic origin. In contrast the upper most sediment from Sites 539, 540 and 541 show no such enrichment in calcareous material. Given that calcareous plankton is prevalent within the upper ocean waters throughout the study area account for their absence at some sites and not others and give the underlying tectonic causative factor.

Teaching week 5 Oceanic lithosphere

Teaching week 6: Hydrothermal seawater circulation in oceanic lithosphere

Teaching week 7: Subduction zones
Focus depth distance from trench Focus depth distance from trench
37 40 62 64
45 53 102 80
50 12 200 150
62 23 170 100
38 18 137 80
41 9 163 120
41 36 400 210
63 50 330 200
97 74 270 180
68 74 223 160
62 64 380 210
102 80 330 190
200 150 530 290
170 100 557 300
137 80 540 286
163 120 610 307
400 210 650 323
330 200 490 260
270 180 507 268
223 160 630 301
380 210
330 190
530 290
557 300
540 286
610 307
650 323
490 260
507 268
630 301

The table above shows the focus depths of earthquake plotted against distance from the trench (heading east).
a) Plot the data and outline any potential seismic gaps in the data set and state the significance (if any)
b) Characterise the angle of subduction
c) Comment on the likely nature of the stress regime in the overriding plate
d) Why does earthquake activity appear to terminate at ca 650km depth ? and, what (if any) internal boundary within the mantle would you expect to encounter around this depth ?

Teaching week 7: Subduction zones

Teaching week 8: Melting mechanisms in subduction settings
The table below gives wt% oxides analyses for five igneous rock samples, from this table calculate the normalised FeOtotal, total alkalis (K2O+Na2O) and MgO content of each rock in the box below the table and then mark their positions directly on the AFM diagram

SiO2    TiO2    Al2O3   FeO CaO MgO MnO K2O Na2O    P2O5    LOI Total

Sample 1 57.15 1.30 17.55 6.02 6.20 3.00 0.07 2.35 4.90 0.61 0.33 99.48
Sample 2 60.34 0.73 18.49 4.32 5.58 2.09 0.08 1.76 5.01 0.17 0.73 99.30
Sample 3 70.84 0.35 14.27 3.73 2.49 0.63 0.08 3.45 3.53 0.08 0.29 99.74
Sample 4 75.82 0.09 13.07 2.66 0.28 0.25 0.04 3.72 3.95 0.01 0.10 99.99
Sample 5 78.03 0.05 12.37 1.23 0.47 0.12 0.00 4.49 3.62 0.00 0.52 100.89

In the box below indicate if the rocks are consistent with a tholeiitic or calc-alkaline trend, then suggest rock type names for each sample.

Week 9: Orogenesis

In the box below explain what possible bearing these two simple cartoon diagrams have in relation to the evolution of the Himalayas.

Week 10: Passive margins

In terms of what you understand of volcanic and non-volcanic passive margin case studies list the short comings of this diagram in the text box below

Sample Solution

Falcon Poem Harjo is a "clarification" in Joy Harjo's sonnet "Happiness Poetry" discussing petition and life, and how they create around labor. While combining normally, I feel that we are in a spot we didn't envision, and I feel what I might want to do in that superb and quiet spot. In the wake of perusing this sonnet he/she prefers that verse type. This is on the grounds that "Falcon" demands thoughts and extends it to the entire sonnet. For instance, it supplicates from start to finish, is discussing nature and creatures. Individuals will never reconsider they go There are a couple of things throughout everyday life. Until Robert Francis composed a sonnet called "Falcon Plain", the notorious significance of American Eagle was one of them. The sonnet was discharged during the 200th commemoration of the United States, so the planning couldn't be improved. As Poet 180 stated, "This sonnet surveys the conventional images", however this is putting it mildly. Notwithstanding assessing the conventional images, this sonnet totally modifies this undisputed image and the peruser's perspective overall of the United States utilizing short provisos loaded up with provocative lines. This sonnet causes the peruser to see how to add such a large number of implications to images really hurt more than great The entire sonnet is about how we regard arbitrary things and these things never think about it. For me, this sonnet is said from an American perspective. This sonnet discloses to the peruser how American Eagle couldn't care less about the United States and regards Americans. In this sonnet, the writer clarifies that the falcon "will never attempt to look humble". An exceptional and significant course is "American Eagle never said that he will serve on the off chance that he is chosen. Robin Skeleton's sonnet "Bird" is a free sonnet. This implies there is no particular or unsurprising rhyme or example in the sonnet. Skeletons utilize unusual delays and accentuation by doling out words utilizing periods. These all supplement the beat of verse. For instance, "Discombobulation is my region" in the principal line. With full stop, perusers can focus on the earnestness of verse. It underscores the basic character of bird by making an announcement. A case of Skelton underscoring words with free verse is on line 4. If it's not too much trouble put this toward the finish of the sentence with the goal that the peruser can underline the following line. It takes milliseconds to peruse the following word on the following line, not on a similar line. The sentence "Kindly don't trouble him or more" proceeds. This assists with underlining "no" for explaining and tuning in.
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