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Transaction Analysis, Evaluation, and Comparison

A transaction follows the two-phase locking (2PL) protocol if all locking operations (read_lock, write_lock) precede the first unlock operation in the transaction.
Such a transaction can be divided into two phases: an expanding or growing (first) phase, during which new locks on items can be acquired but none can be released, and a shrinking (second) phase, during which existing locks can be released but no new locks can be acquired (Elmasri, 2017).

To prepare:
• Review the media piece, Definition of Transaction Management, found in this week’s Learning Resources. (

To complete this Assignment:

  1. Consider the transactions:
    T1: R1(A), W1(B)
    T2: R2(A), W2(A), W2(B)
    Suppose we insert a pair of lock and unlock commands for each element of the database that the transactions can access.
    • Explain how many concurrent execution schedules, of the two transactions, follow the 2PL protocol.
    • Explain whether there are any serializable schedules of concurrent execution of the two transactions that do not follow the 2PL protocol.
  2. Consider the following transactions:
    T1: R1(A), R1(B), INC1(A), INC1(B)
    T2: R2(A), R2(B), INC2(A), INC2(B)
    • Explain how many serializable schedules of concurrent execution of the two transactions there are.
    • If the order of the increment operations in T2 is reversed, how many serializable schedules of concurrent execution of the two transactions are there?

Sample Solution

novel, which both relates to the autobiographical elements of the novel as both Nabokov and his monstrous narrator were highly educated and academic Europeans and creates a romantically academic façade of Humbert’s character. Such references, ‘comme, vous le savez trop bien, ma gentille’, are commonly concerning Lolita, and the inability of the common reader to understand his foreign narration furthers the seductive and private nature of the relationship while also heightening the romanticism and idealisation of their love. As a consequence, it is evident that the Nabokov’s use of elaborate and academically advanced language encourages the reader to accept the unreliable narrator. Furthermore, one might suggest that the reader is encouraged to sympathise and identify with Nabokov’s monstrous male hero in Lolita as a result of the consistent involvement and flattering language directed towards the reader, which enables them to identify and form a relationship with Humbert and provoke positive reinforcement towards such acceptance. Clearly, the reader is encouraged to become involved with Humbert’s narrative, with references to the ‘learned reader’ and ‘astute reader’ which show the enthusiasm of Nabokov to encourage the reader to identify with his narrator. The protagonist is evidently conscious of his readership, reflecting his confident and assured nature as he refers to the reader is part of an intellectual group, calling them ‘unbiased’ to imply that they are open-minded and accepting – and aiding the forming of a relationship between the narratee and narrator to show their likeminded nature and justify Humbert’s actions. Additionally, the possessive pronoun in the phrase ‘my patient reader’ by the end of part one of the text highlights the reader’s acceptance of the narrator, while the continuing complimentary language reflects Humbert’s persuasive and manipulative manner which is concealed beneath the reader’s reaction of flattery and fondness. Within the novel, the reader is encouraged to take an active part in the discourse, undermining the character of Lolita as disabling her ability to gain empathy. Nabokov creates distance between the reader and Lolita, ‘whose meek temper Lo ought to have copied’ which is suggestive of the similarity and compatibility the narrator intends to evoke between Humbert and the narratee, while they are disassociated with Lolita’s suffering. Similarly, frequent addresses to the jury throughout the text imply the central issue of Humbert’s guilt, seen through the phrases ‘winged gentlemen of the jury’ and ‘ladies and gentlemen of the jury’, which put the narrator in a position to be judged and allow him to familiarise himself with the reader in order to seek sympathy. Therefore, it is evident that direct addresses to his readership enable Nabokov to encourage them to accept and sympathise with his monstrous male hero. In addition to this, it may be argued that the reader is encouraged to accept Nabok

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