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White Collar Crime

Financial Based Fraud Characters and Corporations, and a Roundtable of WCC issues, the deadline is 25 July at midnight. The five-point penalty for late submission begins at 12:01 am 26 July, and the portal closes at midnight on 28 July. 1) Critically review the VW emissions scandal. What happened and why? Discuss both criminal and civil liability. In terms of both, criminal and civil applications, discuss the hurdles faced by the government in pursuing this case. 2) Interest rates for basic savings accounts range from 2%-to almost nothing. Therefore, many people choose to invest in the stock market in hopes of interest rates 5% and up, or at least they did prior to CoVid 19 when they were still employed. Therefore, most investors are looking for advice. What is the difference in searching for expert advice and insider trading? Be sure to illustrate with examples from your course materials. 3) Apparently, we did not learn from the S&L crises of the 1980’s, and in 2008 the financial impact of the sub-prime mortgage crises leads to a national recession. If helping more people own homes, part of the American dream, is a good social policy, explain why the financial results can be catastrophic. This is a good opportunity to compare and contrast the CJS response to frauds associated with the S&L crisis to those linked to the sub-prime mortgage collapse. 4) Medical doctors work within one of the most trusted, prestigious professions in the U.S. Using your course materials illustrate how WCC can affect this area. Use the internet to locate a current case study for comparison purposes. On a related issue discuss how the problem of​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​ Medicare fraud may be reduced. 5) Describe how perpetrators commit Identity Theft, and present advice on how citizens can reduce the chances of victimization. What are the possible consequences of being a victim? Once victimized, how can the parties reduce the damage? Lastly, does Identity Theft fit within your working definition of WCC or does this belong in a different conceptual category? Explain. 6) In terms of explaining WCC, there are several criminological perspectives that might apply. These include the following theories: Rational Choice, Techniques of Neutralization, Social Learning Theory, Conflict theory, Strain Theory, and Psychopathy. In your opinion, which perspective best explains WCC? As an alternative, which combination of perspectives is best?

Sample Solution

Marx also censures capitalism on grounds of four kinds of alienation. Marx describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of human beings from features of their Gattungswesen (‘species-essence) due to being a mechanistic part of one of the stratified social classes within industrial society (Marx, 2009). Alienation from Product occurs in the capitalist processes of production, whereby we are continuously producing and reproducing two types of product at the same time: goods and services and the capitalist social relations that dominate us, in particular impersonal market forces, following the rules of the market and not our own ill, as our making capacity is limited to survival, through the means of wages. Therefore, the conditions of capitalism constitute the alienation of the human being from their creation (Marx, 1992 [1844]). This is based on Feuerbach’s humanism in which he stated that the idea of a supernatural God has estranged innate characteristics of human beings (Feuerbach, 1881 [1841]) and therefore humanity, rather than God or reason, should be the focus of both philosophy and social life (Feuerbach, 1986 [1843]). Feuerbach criticised Hegel’s assertion that mankind’s status could be reduced by making human beings the object of an abstract reason (Wood, 1990), and as such prominence is given to humanism and the self-alienation of proletarian labour. Alienation from the Labour Process involves impersonal market forces alienating workers from their product. Commodification of the market leads to the ‘labour power’ (Marx, 2009) of the worker reduced to wages. Additionally, further alienation is imposed through the production subject as the worker has no control over their product. Therefore, labour is merely a means of survival and is not ‘voluntary but coerced’ (forced labour) (Marx, 2009). This leads to little psychological job satisfaction and a perpetuating cycle as one’s only means of survival in a capitalist economy is through monetary exchange and therefore the worker is bound by the capitalist’s demands for their own survival through wages. Alienation of the worker from their Gattungswesen (species-essence or species-being) involves a dictation of relationships to people and activities which facilitate survival. Therefore, one’s consciousness isn’t determined individually, through an ability to shape the world ourselves; rather collectively in our necessity to survive, through wages in capitalist society, due to the commodification of one’s labour (Marx, 1992 [1844]). Finally, alienation of the worker from other workers occurs in capitalist society due to a competitive-labour market which extracts the maximum surplus value from workers in the form of capital. Social conflict is created due to competition between workers for ‘higher wages’ (Marx, 1992 [1844]), leading to a false consciousness, allowing the ideological control of the bourgeoisie to pervade through their cultural hegemony. However in critically evaluating such claims, Althusser criticise
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