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Arousal modulation theory is the only play theory that proposes the involvement of arousal levels in children to influence their need to play. It also provides a systematic cycle type element to children’s playful behaviour. However, as the arousal modulation theory suggests a child needs to be kept at medial level of arousal, it can be argued that this theory does not specify the optimal arousal level. The types of play children take part in differ as they grow older. This theory also fails to elaborate on how arousal may differ with age. Furthermore, it is unclear if there is a specific threshold level, which if passed, the child engages in specific exploration. Hence it is difficult to understand that at which level of internal arousal may a child exhibit specific exploration and subsequently succumb to different types of play. Furthermore, this model does not provide an explanation to account for individual differences between children. Empirical evidence investigating arousal modulation theory has several methodological implications. Firstly, most research that has taken place has investigated one age group at one time of their development. Thus, it is unlikely to generalise the findings on another age group, especially considering the evidence relates to developmental trajectory that has the ability to change as a child grows. Furthermore, most findings cannot be generalised to children of populations apart from WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialized, rich democratic) populations. There is lack of research conducted in Asian and low education backgrounds. Furthermore, studies that have controlled for socio-economic backgrounds (e.g Ramani & Seigler, 2008) do not explicitly mention educational background and financial status of children’s families that may impact the results. One major implication of experimental research is the level of controls that are necessary to apply in order to achieve a cause and effect relationship. For instance, Nath & Szücs (2014) measured visuo-spatial memory and mathematical ability by testing children in a Lego construction paradigm. Children were tested independently. It can be argued that the experiment exhibited an unnatural playing environment with the involvement of instructions provided by an unfamiliar experimen

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