Human Anatomy and Physiology



1. Maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis is critical to neurological, cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Consider the roles of two hormones involved in the regulation of the concentration of calcium ions in the blood. Parathyroid hormone increases the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, while calcitonin decreases the concentration. Based on this information predict the body’s response to restore calcium balance if a person swallowed 100 antacid tablets made of a calcium compound in 10 minutes. Include in your answer the definition of homeostasis, the type of feedback loop involved and all of the components of a feedback loop.     2. Provide one important example (in the human body) of each of the following:a. a molecule containing ionic bonds     b. a molecule containing covalent bonds     c. a molecule containing hydrogen bonds     What is the function of each of these three molecules you have identified in the human body? Explain why each of these three molecules must have its specific types of bonds in order to perform that molecule’s function.     3. Define mitosis and meiosis, and describe the differences between these two processes.     4. List the skin glands and write details about their functions. What would be the consequences if a person’s skin glands stopped functioning?     5. Describe how the structures of the epidermis allow it to provide immediate and indirect protection to underlying tissues.     6. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each of the following sentences.a. Functions of the skeletal system include support, protection, assisting in movement,       homeostasis,       production and triglyceride storage.b. The hollow space inside of long bones that is lined with       and filled with yellow marrow is the      .c. The protein that provides flexibility and       strength to bone is      .d.      bone tissue is organized into concentric rings of bone tissue, which are called osteons or      . e.      accompany blood vessels within bone tissue; the periosteum is enriched with       neurons.f. Ossification may also be called      ; in an embryo, it begins with the organization of       tissue into the general shape of bones.g.      ossification occurs between       connective tissue sheet-like layers that resemble membranes.h. Activity of the epiphyseal plate causes the       region of a bone to grow in      .i.     , IGFs, insulin and T3/T4 are the primary stimulators of bone growth before      .j.      is the hormone that       the effects of parathyroid hormone.7. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES.Items in column A can be used more than once when making matches to column B. However, there is only one correct answer for each blank space.Column A Column Ba. articular cartilageb. diaphysisc. endosteumd. epiphysese. periosteumf. canaliculig. lacunaeh. lamellaei. osteonsj. trabeculaek. calcificationl. development of cartilage modelm. development of ossification centern. development of periosteumo. osteoblastp. intramembranous ossificationq. osteoclast r. zone of hypertrophic cartilages. zone of proliferating cartilaget. zone of calcified cartilageu. calcitoninv. calcitriolw. foramenx. parathyroid hormoney. fossa     raises blood Ca2+ levels by increasing osteoclast activity and blocking kidney secretion of Ca2+      struts or plates within spongy bone that assist in withstanding stresses in a specific direction      channels in bone matrix; allow osteocytes to communicate with each other      expanded ends of a long bone      occurs after development of ossification center during intramembranous bone development; occurs prior to formation of trabeculae      lines the marrow cavity      protects bone; assists in fracture repair      a rounded passageway through a bone that permits blood vessels and/or nerves to pass      shaft of a long bone
process where the bone develops from mesenchyme, often forming flat bones      structural units of compact bone      bone cell that breaks down old bone matrix      spaces in bone matrix that contain osteocytes      tiny channels connecting osteocytes with the central canal of an osteon      occurs when mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate during intramembranous bone development      inhibits osteoclastic activity      reduces friction and absorbs shock at joints that have a wide range of motion      results in the development of periosteum from the highly-vascularized mesenchyme on the outside of new bone      does not occur during intramembranous bone development; must arise from mesenchyme template      part of a long bone that is not covered by the periosteum is covered by this structure8. a. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES.Items in column A can be used more than once when making matches to column B. However, there is only one correct answer for each blank space.Column A Column B1. pronation2. abduction3. inversion4. gliding5. depression6. dorsiflexion7. extension8. retraction9. lateral flexion10. circumduction11. plantar flexion12. elevation13. adduction14. hyperextension15. flexion16. medial rotation17. eversion18. protraction19. supination20. lateral rotation a.      straightening the elbow jointb.      moving the arm anteriorlyc.      spreading the fingers apartd.      opening the jawe.      bending the ankle joint so that the foot moves downwardf.      moving a thigh straight toward the other thighg.      bending the wrist joint so that the hand moves posteriorlyh.      bending the head so that it moves toward the right shoulderi.      bending the knee jointj.      moving the thumb around in a circle
b. From the movements listed in column B, list the scientific names of the bones (learned in earlier chapters) that meet at each joint, i.e., where each movement occurs. Note: The spaces below require one or two bones of a certain region. Be very specific when required.a.      articulates with      b.      articulates with      c.      articulates with      d.      articulates with      e.      articulates with      f.      articulates with      g.      articulates with      h.      articulates with      i.      articulates with      j.      articulates with      9. Compare the organization and functions of axial and appendicular skeletons, and describe in detail the girdles of the latter.     10. Match the items in column A with descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES.Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B. There is only one correct answer for each blank space.Column A Column B1. contractility2. elasticity3. electrical excitability4. extensibility5. thermogenesis6. endomysium7. epimysium8. fascicles9. perimysium10. tendon11. myoblasts12. myofibers13. sarcolemma14. sarcoplasm15. sarcoplasmic reticulum16. A band17. H zone18. I band19. M line20. Z discs21. actin22. myosin23. titin24. troponin25. tropomyosin26. acetylcholine27. acetylcholinesterase28. Ca2+29. calsequestrin30. Na+31. myogram32. relaxation period33. twitch contraction34. contraction period35. wave summation     property allowing muscle tissue to return to its original shape after contraction      modified smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell; stores Ca2+      function of muscle; heat generation      period of contraction when most of the smooth and sustained movements is performed by the skeletal muscle      property allowing muscle to shorten forcefully when stimulated by an action potential      molecule needed for maximum storage of Ca2+ in sarcoplasmic reticulum      formed by fusion of connective tissues; joins muscles to bones      regulatory protein associated with thin filament; binds Ca2+      bundles of muscle fibers      embryonic cells; fuse to form muscle cells      region where thick and thin filaments overlap each other      connective tissue around one bundle of muscle fibers      sites delineating ends of sarcomeres       structural protein; anchors thick filament to M line and Z disc      site where support proteins hold thick filaments together      contractile protein found in thin filament      enzyme that removes neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft; helps muscle relax      phenomenon in which successive stimulations cause stronger contractions      ion that enters muscle fiber, causing depolarization and allowing muscle action potential to propagate      contraction of a single muscle following a single stimulation



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