Essays

The Play: Les Liaisons Dangereuses

 

The play is presented in ACTS I and II, both with various scenes. In ACT I, Vicomte de Valmond and Marquise de Merteuil are getting ready for the ball through the help of their servant. They are extremely rich and are among the top individuals in every important social function (Airey, 2015). The two are former lovers and even though they endured rivalry and tension sparks, they were not that indifferent. They turn their attention to an innocent girl from a poor family, Cecile de Volanges.

Scene 1

High society members among them, Valmond and Merteuil, meet at the ball. Cecile arrives and she is introduced by her mother to the man chosen to marry her (Airey, 2015). Merteuil realizes that the man to marry Cecile was her former lover who rejected her and thus she decides to revenge him with the assistance of Valmond. They create a situation where Valmond remains alone with Cecile and manages to arouse her curiosity.

Scene 2

Merteuil spies on the humble, pious Tourvel. Valmond joins her and they decide to victimize Tourvel to comprise her upright virtue.

Scene 3

Holy fist ceremony is arranged in the rural village where Tourvel takes part. Valmond joins the ceremony to attract her attention. Valmond tries his advances on Tourvel but fails to captivate her since she avoided all his flirtations and advances (Airey, 2015).

Scene 4

Valmond and Merteuil carry out plans to lure their next victim, Chevalier Danceny, into their intrigue web.

Scene 5

Danceny meets and fall in love with Cecile at the ball where they are rudely interrupted by the arrival of Valmond and Merteuil. During the women’s dance Merteuil thrust Cecile into Valmond hands for the dance. At the same time Merteuil seduces Danceny.

Scene 6

Tourvel meets Valmond with increased passion and warmth and she is ready to submit to Valmond. She gives him a rosary as a sign to converting him to an honorable man. Merteuil displeased with this close intimacy of Valmond and Tourvel, decides to make Valmond jealous by flirting with Danceny (Seth, 2016). Valmond thus abandons Tourvel and goes with Merteuil.

ACT II

Scene 1

Merteuil, Cecile, Danceny, Valmond and Tourvel perform their acts in the foreground as everyone listened to the singer (Seth, 2016). After departure of guests Valmond’s and Tourvel’s love rekindles but it is interrupted by arrival of Merteuil. Valmond lost Tourvel and he gets humiliated by Merteuil when he asked her to be his lover again.

Scene 2

Danceny and Merteuil start erotic games at the ball while Merteuil still pushed Valmond away. Valmond becomes desperate and challenges Danceny into a duel which results into Valmond’s death. During his last steps after being stabbed, Valmond removes Tourvel’s rosary to give to Danceny but Tourvel appears among the crowd and retrieves the rosary (Seth, 201). She then dies next to her lover wracked in pain. Merteuil arrives and sees the two united in death, she realizes she is defeated. She is then banished from the society.

Analysis

The Script

The script is wrote in styles that corresponds to personal emotions thus every part varies depending on the writer. The writers vary in sophistication and education thus the difference in quality of the writing. For instance Cecile writes in youthful and literate style while Merteuil’s style is more complex and poetic (Seth, 2016). Each character in the play thus uses distinct word choice and writing style. The limitation portrayed in the script is that it leaves the audience to play catch-ups after every scene change. The characters consistently play expository catch ups to smoothen the long transitions thus dragging the pace of the play.

Design of the play

The design of Les Liaisons Dangereuses is excellently done. The costumes are beautiful and accurately compliment the characters using the unique colors. The set is functional and minimal thus making it appropriate.  Sound designs is simple and appropriate too as the chamber music helps to ease the long transitions in the play. The pastel design of costume, lighting, sound and set work together in perfection to bring out the ethical ambivalence of Vicomte and Marquise (Allan, 2016). The design team thus accurately captured the mood and setting of the play.

The Performers

The superior performance is when Merteuil arrives and sees the body of Valmond and Tourvel united in death. Merteuil then understands that she had been defeated owed by the emptiness of her victory. This scene is superior because it shows how empathetic her character is. Though it is difficult to revel her viciousness, she elegantly reveals in the end that her actions were regrettable (Allan, 2016).

 

The performance which was inferior is where Tourvel gives a rosary to Valmond as a show of her submission to him but he gets distracted by Merteuil. He gets provoked when Merteuil flirts with Danceny and decides to leave Tourvel. This shows how unempathetic and unsympathetic Valmond’s character was (Allan, 2016). These performance portrayed Valmond to have no stand and not sure of what he wanted. As brought towards the end of the play, he loved Tourvel but still fell jealous when Merteuil flirts with other people. The scene thus, does not clearly show who Valmond truly loved.

 

References

Airey, J. L. (2015). Les Liaisons Dangereuses. Restoration and 18th Century Theatre Research, 30(1/2), 129.

Allan, D. (2016). The Power of an Idea: Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment. Literary Imagination, 18(2), 133-148.

Seth, C. (2016). Picturing Les Liaisons Dangereuses: Eighteenth‐Century Illustrations of Laclos’s Novel. Journal for Eighteenth‐Century Studies, 39(4), 579-597.

 

 

2.  Elderly Falls 

Elderly falls

Student name

Student ID

Date

 

 

Siracuse, J. J., Odell, D. D., Gondek, S. P., Odom, S. R., Kasper, E. M., Hauser, C. J., & Moorman, D. W. (2012). Health care and socioeconomic impact of falls in the elderly. The American Journal of Surgery, 203(3), 335-338.

 

This article explores the social and economic impact of falls among the elderly population by examining the fate of elderly patients aged above seventy-five years after falls. It holds that elderly falls are not only associated with long hospital stays but are also linked to major morbidity as well as high mortality rate among the elderly. During the research, fall admissions in 2008 were reviewed, and analyses about causes of falls, commodities associated with falls as well as injuries acquired as a result of falls were conducted. Moreover, the analysis was conducted on procedures, mortality due to falls as well as readmission as a result of falls besides the health care costs associated with falls.

 

From the research findings, it is posited that seven hundred and eight elderly patients aged seventy-five years and above were admitted after a fall. Among this population, eighty-nine percent were admitted due to simple falls. Moreover, the research findings indicate that the short-term mortality was about six percent with male sex, congestive heart failure (CHF), intracranial haemorrhage, atrial fibrillation, acute myocardial infarction, hospital-acquired pneumonia, trigger events, as well as incubation as the key predictors of death. Besides, the rate of thirty-day readmission was found to be about fourteen percent. Also, the research findings indicate that the elderly falls are associated with increased cost of healthcare whereby the median cost of hospitalisation was found to be about eleven thousand dollars. Notably, this research highlights the seriousness of elderly falls as a problem within healthcare systems thereby drawing the need for adoption of effective fall prevention measures to reduce the socioeconomic impact of elderly falls. However, the research presents some shortcomings as it does not provide recommendations on possible fall prevention measures. Notably, the author of the article concludes that simple falls have high morbidity and mortality among the elderly besides increasing the costs of healthcare in this population.

 

In summation, this research lends evidence to the effect that elderly falls have a severe socioeconomic impact among the elderly population. This is evident from the research findings that that associate the elderly falls to short-term mortality and the high cost of hospitalization.

Landi, F., Liperoti, R., Russo, A., Giovannini, S., Tosato, M., Capoluongo, E., … & Onder, G. (2012). Sarcopenia as a risk factor for falls in elderly individuals: results from the ilSIRENTE study. Clinical nutrition, 31(5), 652-658.

 

This article explores sarcopenia as a risk factor for falls in the elderly. It acknowledges that elderly falls have severe socioeconomic impacts on the elderly population and seeks to highlight sarcopenia as a risk factor that can be mitigated to reduce elderly falls. The author asserts that sarcopenia is a reliable marker of poor prognosis and frailty among the oldest individuals. During this research, data was collected from the baseline and follow-up evaluations found from the Aging and Longevity Study that was conducted in the Sirente Geographic Area. Notably, the diagnosis of sarcopenia was done in the presence of low muscle mass as well as low muscle strength in accordance with the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The incident falls in the two-year follow-up period were the primary outcome measure and hazard ratios (HRs) derived from multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between sarcopenia and incident falls.

 

From the research findings, twenty-five decimal four percent of participants were identified as affected by sarcopenia of which twenty-seven decimal three percent reported incident falls during the two-year follow-up study. However, only nine decimal eight percent of participants without sarcopenia reported incident falls in the same period. Notably, this research shows the increased risk of elderly falls that comes with sarcopenia by positing that older people with sarcopenia have a higher risk of incident falls than non-sarcopenic elderly individuals. However, the research present a shortcoming as it does not provide a recommendation on how this risk factor can be mitigated. In conclusion, the author of the article adduce that sarcopenia is highly prevalent among elderly persons and that sarcopenic elderly individuals are three times more likely to fall compared to non-sarcopenic individuals irrespective of gender, age, and other confounding factors.

 

In summation, this research lends evidence to the problem of elderly falls by exposing sarcopenia as a risk factor for elderly falls. As such, it contributes immensely to the understanding of causes of elderly falls and subsequently helps to address the issue.

Siqueira, F. V., Facchini, L. A., Silveira, D. S. D., Piccini, R. X., Tomasi, E., Thumé, E., … & Dilélio, A. (2011). Prevalence of falls in elderly in Brazil: a countrywide analysis. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 27(9), 1819-1826.

 

 

This article explores the prevalence of falls in Brazil as well as the health status of the elderly individuals about falls based on the guidance received by individuals on avoiding falls, the occurrence of fractures due to falls as well as the need to undergo surgery through the health systems. The research was conducted using a sample of elderly aged sixty years and above living in the urban areas of one hundred municipalities in twenty-three of Brazil’s states in the country’s five geographical regions. Using standardized and pre-tested questionnaires, all the elderly participants responded to the study questions. Moreover, data were collected through personal digital assistant (PDA) by fifty-five well-trained interviewers. The datasets were conveyed via the internet to the study coordinators at Pelotas Federal University (UFPel) for analysis.

 

From the research findings, there is a high prevalence of falls in Brazil. The findings indicate that going by geographical region of Brazil, the prevalence of falls ranges from 18.6% in the North Region of Brazil to 30% in the Southeast Region of the country. Notably, 11% of the fall victims had suffered fractures as a result. The research highlights the problem of elderly falls in the society through its findings of the high prevalence of elderly falls in Brazil. The analysis of the results depicts an association between falls and socioeconomic status of the elderly thus contributing to the knowledge base on the issue. However, the posited some bias as it lacked fair regional representation. In conclusion, the author asserts that there is a high prevalence of falls among the elderly.

 

In summation, the research lends the evidence in Brazil of the prevalence of elderly falls. Consequently, it depicts the need for effective health care for the elderly to mitigate against elderly falls.

Robinovitch, S. N., Feldman, F., Yang, Y., Schonnop, R., Leung, P. M., Sarraf, T., … & Loughin, M. (2013). Video capture of the circumstances of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: an observational study. The Lancet, 381(9860), 47-54.

 

This article explores the evidence to the effect that falls in the elderly population are a major health burden. The research was conducted in British Columbia, Canada, in two long-term care facilities between April 20, 2007, and June 23, 2010. During the research, digital video cameras were installed in most frequented areas within the facilities. In the event of fall occurrence, an incident report was completed by facility staff and the research teams contacted to collect the video footage. Each fall video was then reviewed by a team with a validated questionnaire designed to probe the cause of fall and activity at the time of falling.

 

From the research findings, 227 falls were captured from 130 elderly individuals. Notably, incorrect weight shifting was the most frequent cause of falling accounting for 41% of falls. Other common causes included trip or stumble, hit or bump, loss of support, and collapse at 21%, 11%, and 11% respectively. Slipping accounted for only 3% of falls. Moreover, the research findings hold forward walking, standing quietly and sitting down as the activities with the highest proportion of falls. This research provides a factual evidence, through real video footage, that underscores the problem of elderly falls. However, the research has a shortcoming in that it does not reflect the total falls in the participating facilities since the cameras were only installed at few places. In conclusion, the author of the article asserts that the high prevalence of falls in the elderly occur during standing and transferring due to center-of-mass perturbations.

 

In summation, this research lends the evidence of high prevalence of elderly falls as well as the activities that increase the risk of elderly falls. As such, it contributes significantly to the knowledge base about the issue and how to reduce elderly falls.

 

References

Landi, F., Liperoti, R., Russo, A., Giovannini, S., Tosato, M., Capoluongo, E., … & Onder, G. (2012). Sarcopenia as a risk factor for falls in elderly individuals: results from the ilSIRENTE study. Clinical nutrition, 31(5), 652-658.

Robinovitch, S. N., Feldman, F., Yang, Y., Schonnop, R., Leung, P. M., Sarraf, T., … & Loughin, M. (2013). Video capture of the circumstances of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: an observational study. The Lancet, 381(9860), 47-54.

Siracuse, J. J., Odell, D. D., Gondek, S. P., Odom, S. R., Kasper, E. M., Hauser, C. J., & Moorman, D. W. (2012). Health care and socioeconomic impact of falls in the elderly. The American Journal of Surgery, 203(3), 335-338.

Siqueira, F. V., Facchini, L. A., Silveira, D. S. D., Piccini, R. X., Tomasi, E., Thumé, E., … & Dilélio, A. (2011). Prevalence of falls in elderly in Brazil: a countrywide analysis. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 27(9), 1819-1826.

 

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