History Final Essay
According to professor Diptee (n.d.), three core characteristics could be used to describe the Caribbean. The first one of these is that the Caribbean was a diverse place composed of many dialects as well as alienated indigenous populations. The second characteristic of the Caribbean was that it consisted of the plantation economies meant to produce large-scale crops for export. Thirdly, the laborers for the plantations were obtained via a massive migration of slaves from Africa, later used as indentured laborers in the plantations.
When Shadow sang the Calypso “Columbus Lied,” his views on the arrival of Christopher Columbus were based on the critics of the historical narrative of Columbus being the founder of the Americas. He wanted to show that before Columbus arrival, the Amerindians already occupied the Caribbean.
The reason as to why Shadow (1989) sang the calypso “Columbus Lied” was to present another historical perspective of the arrival of Columbus in the Caribbean. Specifically, he wanted to show that the Amerindians were the first people to the Caribbean and not Christopher Columbus.
Popular culture refers to the tastes and preferences of the majority of the global population. The views and opinions of the masses constitute modern culture. The song “Columbus Lied” is a form of popular culture, which serves to discredit the account of some historians about who discovered the Americas (Shadow, 1989). Relying on popular culture has the advantage of ensuring that people know the global views of others. However, the disadvantage is that popular culture leads to the desertion of personal and individual beliefs and taking those of the general masses.
Professor Maximillian Forte’s (2006) article thesis statement is that the notion of indigenous people in the Caribbean having become extinct is a choreographed statement meant to serve the economic and political interests of some individuals in the society by preventing any further explanations for the extinction.
Forte supports this thesis through three key points. The first one is that little or no efforts have been directed towards establishing the idea of destruction. Secondly, the supporting archival documents for the extinction are only those from the Europeans while the testaments of the Amerindians have been ignored (Forte, 2006). Finally, the idea of extinction is just but an inter-European rivalry between the Spanish and British.
It is accurate for the people who came from Ireland and Scotland to labor in the Caribbean plantation to be referred to as slaves. The reason for this is that these people were treated as slaves as they were under the monitoring and control of the colonialists. Despite their higher ranks that the African slaves had, they were not given any preferential treatment. Only in the mid-1700s, the Irish and Scots were given freedom due to the arrival of the African slaves (Jolley, 2015). The fact that they did not have same privileges as those of the colonialists makes them for all purposes and intents slaves.
The song “Tobacco Island” had the objective of displaying the plight of the slaves in the Caribbean. Specifically, it starts by showing how the colonialists forcefully removed the slaves from the native lands, taken them to the Caribbean, and deployed them as indentured laborers (Flogging Molly, n.d.). Additionally, the author compares the way the size of the sugarcane in the shores of Barbados are valued more than God hence showing their importance to the colonialists.
I think it is a bit problematic for the public to rely on popular culture such as songs to inform their sense of the past. The first reason for this belief is popular culture replaces the truth with popular views held by a majority of people. Additionally, the information in popular culture might be distorted to make an appeal to a larger group of individuals. Finally, relying upon songs as forms of popular culture can lead to the spread of the wrong message, and the truth might never be known.
It is critical that the history of the white indentured servants is made part of the historical narrative. There is no need for leaving out such a history because of the wish not to display the white race in a bad light. Just like the African slaves’ history, those of the indentured white laborers should be included so that the truth is entirely known. Finally, excluding this history will only serve to support the idea that the whites were never enslaved, which is not true.
In searching for the “Ideal Crop” that could be appropriate for the Caribbean, the European colonialists made various primary considerations. The first one of those was the weather patterns of the area. Specifically, the colonialists were aware that the climate might not be favorable to some crops, which would make them unsuitable (Diptee, n.d.). The second primary consideration was the availability of laborers in the Caribbean who could be used in the plantations. Finally, the European considered soil types of the Caribbean to establish its fertility and suitability for the growth and production of their crops (Burnard, 1996).
When establishing colonies in the Caribbean, the Europeans first encountered the challenge of language barrier considering that the Amerindians did not understand any of the European languages. Secondly, the different climate in the Caribbean made them suffer from various diseases (Savage, 2007). Finally, they had to deal with the challenge of resistance from the indigenous populations as they tried to alienate them from their fertile lands for their agricultural production.
The Europeans firstly tried indigo, coffee, and rice before they started their large-scale production of sugar in the Caribbean.
The effect of the colonization of North America on the possibilities of agricultural production in the Caribbean was slowing down the production due to the reduction of the area of control from the Europeans. As such, their agricultural output was reduced while their field of authority was narrowed.
Three of the variables crucial for the profitable production of sugar in the Caribbean were large-scale production, which ensured that the economies of scale were enjoyed, and access to huge lands for the mass production (Walvin, 2005). Finally, the availability of a large labor force for deployment in the plantations was a critical variable for the manufacture of sugar for profits
As they tried to buy, transport, and sell enslaved African men, women, and children to the Caribbean, the slave traders encountered the challenge of diseases met on the way leading to the death of many people. Additionally, starvation and disagreements between the crew of the ships were critical problems.
According to Thornton’s article, the Haitian Revolution was a quest for the realization of universal human rights. The Africans were, however, yearning for more power ad not the expansion of human rights, making the Haitian Revolution the single movement that wanted to see their freedoms respected.
N.A.T Hall’s article “Maritime Maroons” (1985) thesis statement is that when the slaves ran away, they ensured that the liberties of people in Denmark were realized and that the country abandoned absolute monarchy and adopted better colonial policies.
“Grand Marronage” is defined by N.A.T as the escape of the slaves from the plantations and the subsequent establishment of the Maroon Communities.
The documentary shows that for the war to end, the Africans were willing to compromise with the French. Specifically, they promised to allow the French to still have some form of control and to protect the properties of the French nationals in the country.
The documentary does not vividly describe the role of the Haitian Revolution in the realization of political freedom as well as the expansion of fundamental freedoms.
Quirk (2008) defines “Legal Abolition” as the development of various systems and expectations culminating to the elimination of slavery while “Effective Emancipation” is the state of the change of slaves to free people.
The thesis of Brana-Shute’s article is that the realization of “Effective Emancipation” was only done after the US made a declaration, which led to the slaves being granted freedom through manumission.
Brana-Shute (1989) differentiates “Legal Abolition” and “Effective Emancipation” by stating that whereas “Legal Abolition” was realized when the masters granted their slaves freedom, “Effective Emancipation” is a state of change from slaves to free persons out of the control and monitoring of the masters.
Professor Diptee’s article thesis statement is that contrary to the view of most Caribbeanists, the Afro-Creole Women were not to blame for the migration of Indians as other factors were responsible.
Various points support the thesis statement of the article. One of those is that the Afro-Creole Women were not so immoral as they dictated sex based on the earning power of their spouses. Additionally, the Afro-Creole Women lived separately from the Indians and thereby social interactions, which could lead to sex, were minimal.
Yun and Laremount’s article states that although the Chinese laborers and African slaves worked alongside each other in Cuba, this was not the case in other areas. The reason for this view is that the colonialists considered Chinese laborers as indentured laborers, and respected them for their participation in the independence struggles (Yun &Laremont, 2001). Additionally, they were more useful and hence classified differently.
Based on the conversation between Professor Diptee and Professor Trotman, colonialism was responsible for the shaping of the crime patterns in the Caribbean due to the passage of draconian laws. Specifically, the colonialists ensured that they controlled the slaves and prevented any dissent through oppressive legislations (Diptee, n.d.). For instance, the passage of legislation banning the use of the traditional African religion led to the existence of many crimes. Such laws resulted in the existence of many petty offenses in the Caribbean.
The erection of statues celebrating Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean is a big insult to the indigenous populations. Columbus arrival led to the deaths of many indigenous people as the advent of the Europeans resulted in the reduction of the citizens from over a million to just over 200,000. Additionally, according to De Las Casas, Knight, and Hurley (2003), after Columbus arrived, people were tortured and killed without any provocations. As such, Columbus was not a hero amongst the indigenous populations and thereby, celebrating him is disrespectful.
Brana‐Shute, R. (1989). Approaching freedom: The manumission of slaves in Suriname, 1760–1828.Slavery and Abolition, 10(3), 40-63.
Burnard, T. (1996).European migration to Jamaica, 1655-1780.The William and Mary Quarterly, 53(4), 769-796.
CBC.(2012).Big Sugar 1 of 2 Documentary on the Political History of the Sugar Industry.YouTube. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHh5odELpi4
De Las Casas, B., Knight, F. W., & Hurley, A. (2003).An account, much abbreviated, of the destruction of the Indies, with related texts. Hackett Publishing.
Diptee&Trotman (n.d.). Crime in the Caribbean: A Legacy of Colonialism, A Product of Globalization. Interview.
Diptee, A. (2017). 4) Early Settlement, Part2, 1550-1640. SoundCloud. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://soundcloud.com/audra-diptee/4_early-settlement_part2_1550/s-specq
Diptee, A. (n.d.). 1) Course Introduction. SoundCloud. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://soundcloud.com/audra-diptee/1_course-introduction/s-WpXBY
Diptee, A. (n.d.). 3) Early European Settlement & Indigenous Resistance,1550-1640. SoundCloud. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://soundcloud.com/audra-diptee/3_early-european-settlement/s-uCil3
Diptee, A. (n.d.). 5) Sugar Revolution. SoundCloud. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://soundcloud.com/audra-diptee/5-sugar-revolution/s-hV7s3
Diptee, A. A. (2000). Indian men, Afro‐creole women:‘Casting’doubt on interracial sexual relationships in the late nineteenth‐century Caribbean. Immigrants & Minorities, 19(3), 1-24.
Flogging Molly – Tobacco Island – With Lyrics!.(n.d.).YouTube. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8yEqco39T8&feature=youtu.be
Forte, M. C. (2006). Extinction: Ideologies against Indigeneity in the Caribbean. Southern Quarterly, 43(4), 46.
Hall, N. A. (1985). Maritime Maroons:” Grand Marronage” from the Danish West Indies.The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History and, 476-498.
Jolley, S. (2015).The Irish of Barbados (Photos) | Irish America.Irishamerica.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from http://irishamerica.com/2015/10/the-irish-of-barbados-photos/
PBS Egalite for All: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution (2009). YouTube. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOGVgQYX6SU&feature=youtu.be
Quirk, J. (2008).Ending Slavery in all its forms: Legal abolition and effective emancipation in historical perspective.The International Journal of Human Rights, 12(4), 529-554.
Savage, J. (2007). ” Black magic” and white terror: slave poisoning and colonial society in early 19th century Martinique. journal of social history, 40(3), 635-662.
Shadow, M. (1989). Shadow Columbus Lied. YouTube. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2ikjb_d2Cg
Walvin, J. (2005). The colonial origins of English wealth: the Harewoods of Yorkshire. Journal of Caribbean History, 39(1), 38-54.
Yun, L., &Laremont, R. R. (2001). Chinese Coolies and African Slaves in Cuba, 1847-74. Journal of Asian American Studies, 4(2), 99-122.