## Behavioral and Social science Statistical concept

Essay 1

A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To
test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420
did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of people who were treated with
the shot who developed the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008.

For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine
the limitations of the statistical methods.

Essay 2
A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.
For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.
• Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation.
• Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researcher’s chosen variables.
• Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.

Essay 3
A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:
2.2 4.7 7.3 4.1
9.5 15.2 4.3 9.5
2.7 3.1 9.2 2.9
8.2 7.6 3.5 2.5
9.3 4.8 8.5 8.1

organize data into meaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the variables. You may use Excel, one of the
many free online descriptive statistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a calculator.
Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be the lower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reaction times. Then, address the following points in your essay
response:
• Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.
• How do the two groups differ?
• Are there any outliers in either data group?
• What effect does an outlier have on a sample?