Skills in criminal justice administration.

Annotated Bibliography for Relevance to Criminal Justice Management, Leadership, and Decision Issues

  1. Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision‐making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54(2), 332-359.
    Review
    The article explains that the decisions of judges in the United States criminal justice system have different impacts on society. Racial discrimination is the major issue identified in the findings section of this article. The findings also discuss that it is important to understand the racial disparity in the court process to reduce the rise of this issue. The court process comprises of plea hearings, jury treatments, and sentences by judges. Therefore, it is mandatory to mitigate the risk of racial inequality from this process to ensure complete and accurate justice. Although decision making is not bias and judges behave rationally in the overall process, it is important to address disparities issues that may reduce the negative impact of the decision in the society.
    Critical Analysis
    The qualitative approach selected in this article is to collect reliable information from judges in the Northeastern state of the US. The interview was conducted to collect the data from 59 judges in the state. The simple random sampling was used to collect the data and summarize the information in a systematic manner. The data collection technique and method of analysis used in this study is crucial in applying descriptive analysis and to comment to the results in a formal way.
    The findings of the study reveal that most of the judges were of the opinion that disparity is the consequences of poverty issues in offending rates. However, few judges accepted that the behavior of officials in criminal justice promotes racial disparities. The findings are crucial in understanding the social factor of increasing crimes by poor people belonging to minorities group in society. The conclusion of the study shows that there is a need for amendments in the entire process of the criminal justice system to reduce the risk of increasing inequality issues.
  2. Cox, E. O., & Augustine, J. (2018). The US Criminal Justice System: A Role for Radical Social Work. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 29(3), 157-184.
    Review
    The article highlights the weaknesses and issues of the US criminal justice system that put a direct impact on the overall society. The main issue is that sentences and punishments take high time to complete that promote racial discrimination. The issues and difficulties for low-income people are high in the existing system. The requirement is to bring reforms in the entire system to ensure the improvement in the current legal structure of the United States. The direct practice strategies are expected in this phenomenon to bring a drastic change in the criminal justice system. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and connect advocacy issues by taking the help and assistance of social work. The mission is to develop a system to avoid racial discrimination and increasing offending issues in society.
    Critical Analysis
    The main purpose of the current research was to highlight the issues and recommend practice strategies to resolve the issues. The approach selected for the study was exploratory that reduces the use of statistical tools. The descriptive analysis is prepared in this study to show clarity. The theoretical models and practical implications of various methods are also discussed in this study.
    The methodology adopted in this study was appropriate to the aim and objectives of the study. The key issues mentioned in this study were carried out to ensure the reliability of the research. The key findings of this article were limited to the theoretical discussion on various strategies identified through secondary research. The extracted information was crucial in understanding the strategies that are applicable to the existing justice system of the US.
  3. Phelps, M. S. (2016). Possibilities and contestation in twenty-first-century US criminal justice downsizing. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 12(1), 153-170.
    Review
    The article discusses the issues of discrimination in the punishment of different criminal offences. The difference found in the various criminal justice system is the big issue that creates discrimination in the punishments. The findings of the study were based on the reforms introduced in the US criminal justice system and assess whether it has the potential to give expected outcomes in the long run or not. The results of this descriptive study show that political ideologies are attached to this discrimination. The factor of the status quo should be avoided in the criminal justice system to avoid inequality issues in punishment or prison.
    Critical Analysis
    The aim of this study was to highlight the involvement of political leaders and their influences on the criminal justice system. The main focus of the study is on the progressive reforms that have benefited the drug dealers because their punishment is less harsh than other criminal offences. The socio-cultural aspects are reviewed in this study to explore the differences and consequences of these issues on society.
    The findings of this study are important for future research to conduct a primary survey on the differences. The study could have been extended to limitations and possibilities of reforms that have a negative impact on the society. The actions related to the criminal justice system has a high impact on society in the long run. The contradictory trends in the existing criminal justice system should be reviewed and evaluated whether they should be continued or not. The findings and discussion in this article are crucial for the authorities to design an effective justice system in the state by reducing the chances of negative consequences. A well-designed and uniform system is essential to ensure the achievement of expected outcomes in the long run.
    REFERENCE
    Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision‐making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54(2), 332-359.
    Cox, E. O., & Augustine, J. (2018). The US Criminal Justice System: A Role for Radical Social Work. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 29(3), 157-184.
    Phelps, M. S. (2016). Possibilities and contestation in twenty-first-century US criminal justice downsizing. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 12(1), 153-170.

The final paper should be organized as follows:

A- An abstract, which is a brief summation (100-150 words) of your research and findings
B – Title sheet (including the title of the paper and your name)
C – Introduction and background of the issue researched/studied
D – Topic Discussion: A brief description (1–2 pages) of the research topic and a justification for why the issue is important for criminal justice agencies
E – Problem statement, explaining the importance of the issue—in relation to criminal justice administration (For example: What are the problems that are caused? Why is it important to understand and consider action?)
F – Interview of criminal justice chief executive (See details below.) “Interview of Chief Executive
1- Identify a command staff person actively working in the criminal justice field. This should be a high ranking official. • Gain permission to conduct a brief interview regarding your research topic. o Preparation for this interview is important. A series of pertinent questions will help with the flow of the conversation. o Questions should be at the graduate/executive level. o Make sure there is some focus on recruiting, retention, and leader development. • Your interview summary should be 3–4 pages in length and double-spaced. o Insure that you have permission to craft a written paper following the interview. Since the executive may want to see a copy of the finished report, make sure to offer this option

G – Findings/Recommendations (what you have found in your research, recommendations, and how to evaluate issues)
H – Application/Action orientation (How does this apply to the real world? How could any changes be incorporated in the workplace? What obstacles, i.e., personnel, resistance, legal, etc.—and how could these be minimized?)
I – Conclusion (Wrap up, synthesize and restate the importance of your research in the workplace.)
J – Bibliography

Sample Solution

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