Research paper on an instrument that uses in different cultures
research on: cultural applications, development.
requires (Kouzes and Posner, 2007). The authors recommend the post-heroic leadership forms that emerge from the Catalyst stage onwards. What is desirable about post-heroic leaders is that while leaders hold accountability and accept ultimate responsibility, they allow members to participate and the organization shares commitment and burden in realizing organizational objectives. In this manner, even members of the group are empowered without necessarily holding a position with power. Conclusion This work from Joiner and Stephens (2006) is a response to the ever-growing challenges of leadership that has swept the global age. Compared to the more normative concepts of effective leadership that could be read from Northouse (2008) and Kouzes and Posner (2007), Joiner and Stephens focused on the ability not only to achieve organizational outcomes but to adaptability as well to respond to the changing conditions in society to achieve success for the business or organization. Comparatively, Joiner and Stephens presented a more contemporary strategy for today’s leaders and highlighted examples that are grounded to twenty-first century realities. They used recurrent themes in leadership in presenting their case for leadership agility such as the distinguishing the difference between managers and leaders. The first two forms (Expert and Achiever) resemble the traits of a manager who “controls, arranges, and does things right” (Northouse, 2008, p. 135). Joiner and Stephens (2006) recognize that managerial skills are important in achieving outcomes but must be elevated to include transformational leadership skills in order to apart more effectively to global challenges. For instance, in education reform, there is a need to apply more creative strategies in response to organizational change. This may include proposing for policies that require 1) inclusion and diversity, 2) trends in curriculum and instruction, and 3) use of technology (O’Connell, 2010). As agility progresses to the Catalyst, Cocreator, and Synergist level, the managers transitions to a leader who not only gets results but unleashes creative potential among followers, guides them with a sense of purpose and vision and empowers them toward achieving not only the outcomes of the organization but toward the good. Joiner and Stephens (2006) also dealt with the importance of communication in handling the change process. They reinforced Clawson (2008) in saying that meetings should be empowering to followers. Furthermore, communication also requires that the vision and mission of the organization are articulated well and understood by all levels within the organization (Clawson, 2008; Kouzes & Posner, 2007). Joiner and Stephens (2006) incorporates some of the traditional leadership concepts such as transformational leadership, motivation, influence, creativity, innovation into the hierarchical leadership agility model but is unique in characterizing the stages in agility into t>