- Understand the function of blood and its composition.
1.1 Explain the major components and functions of blood.
1.2 Explain the formation of blood cells and how they mature.
1.3 Explain the structure and function of RBCs, including the role of haemoglobin and how they are recycled.
1.4 Describe the structure of WBCs and explain their functions in relation to immunity.
- Understand the blood clotting process.
2.1 Explain the process of Haemostasis in detail.
shame produces avoidance, both cognitively and behaviorally, survivors, as well as those who support them, need to understand the significant effect that deep and sincere connections can have on survivors while working through abuse-related shame. Turner (1993) stated that “the process of sharing feelings with others and realizing that other people feel the same way provides a sense of relief and makes people feel less frightened and not so alone” (para. 12). Being able to reach out for help and seek connection, the opposite of avoidance, will likely improve the survivor’s ability to overcome shame and empower her to fight the feelings of isolation that she experiences. Feeling Less Powerless As suggested by Brown (2006), sexual abuse survivors find that producing effects strong enough to counter the shame caused by sexual abuse very difficult. Because shame produces so many emotions, survivors have difficulty feeling empowered enough to get to the core of their abuse and begin healing. Survivors are often stuck in the secondary emotions: shame, guilt, anxiousness, helplessness, and hurt (E. Harwood, personal communication, November 1, 2017). In a study done by Berliner and Wheeler (1987), survivors of sexual abuse typically got to the core of their abuse and began healing by gradually exposing their abuse situation through talking about or abreaction, the expression and emotional discharge of repressed emotion (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2017). If female survivors of sexual abuse can experience abreaction, in addition to the support of deep and sincere connections with other women, then they may be able to reach the core of their abuse and begin to explore to real emotions that they are feeling. Survivors will likely gain power over their abuse each time it is exposed through the help of therapists, peers, and family supports. Survivors may begin to feel empowered and start to overcome the complexity of the shame that they experience. They may also find the power to keep seeking connections necessary to overcome feelings of isolation. Feeling Less Isolated The confusion, betrayal, and loneliness that survivors of sexual abuse experience are conflicting emotions and tend to run deep. Because sexual abuse can come by means of close friends, family members, trusted individuals (or associates), isolation seems to be the fitting response when considering that a trusted person could be the perpetrator of such acts. Survivors typically need to rebuild trust, and this can be done through forming deep and sincere connections with women among whom they feel comfortable or women who have experienced something similar. Bass and Davis (1988) found that as women speak to each other about past traumatic experiences, they are able to put more distance between themselves and the pain. That ability led survivors to feel less victimized and more connected with those to whom they were talking (Bass & Davis, 1988). If female survivors can come to trust the deep and sincere connections the form with fellow women, ten they will be able to feel less isolated through talking about their experiences. In addition, survivors will likely feel more empathy and sympathy from those around them and begin to feel that they are not alone but rather surround by people who understand them and their experiences. They will begin to feel connected. Empowerment through Connection Human beings thrive off of feelings of belonging. On Maslow’s Hierarch of Needs, the need to belong is most important after basic needs and safety and security. Further, it is often said that the opposite of addiction is not sobriety but rather connection. If connection is powerful enough to help one to overcome or avoid addiction completely, how important is it then for one seeking to overcome the shame that comes from sexual abuse? Baumeister and Leary (2000) described the “need to belong or need to develop and maintain meaningful social bonds as a ‘fundamental human motivation’ that lies beneath a myriad of human interaction and behavior”(P#). On that premise, the desire for connection and feelings of belonging come naturally and should not be ignored. In a study done by Llabre and Hadi (1997) that examined children in Kuwait who had experienced trauma, data showed that girls who experienced trauma and perceived low levels of support experienced the highest levels of PTSD symptoms. By providing support to female survivors of sexual abuse through deep and sincere connection from fellow women, these PTSD symptoms may diminish. Whether survivors of sexual abuse prefer avoidance or connection, as observed earlier, friends and familial support must be understanding. If the proper support can be given to victims soon after the abuse occurs, then they symptoms of PTSD may decrease and the natural desire for connection and belonging will likely be satisfied. That help alone may empower female survivors of sexual assault to push through the shame they feel and move forward through the process of healing. The need for connection is not merely a desire to have friends.>