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Read “Case Study 7.1: Going Digital” on p. 385 in Ch. 7 of Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership: Casting Light or Shadow.

• Determine what initial steps Alicia Pia should take when arriving at South Town.
• Explain how Alicia Pia should frame the change to employees at South Town Press (e.g., What ethical messages should she communicate? What alternative frames might be offered by workers and subscribers?).
• Explain the advantages Alicia Pia has, as well as obstacles Pia faces, in communicating high expectations to the entire staff.
• Explain how Alicia Pia can foster self-efficacy in her entire staff.
• Explain how Alicia Pia can use indirect channels to communicate high expectations to each individual member of her leadership team.

CASE STUDY 7.1GOING DIGITALAfter 125 years, the South Town Press is going digital. A large Connecticut-based newspaper chain recently purchased South Town, which is the only paper in a medium-size Alabama city. Soon South Town will be converting from traditional daily paper delivery to an online format. Executives at headquarters decided to make this change at all of the chain’s papers in response to shifting reading habits. The subscriber base for traditional newspapers is shrinking as more people access their news through phones, tablets, and computers. The chain’s owners believe that going to a digital format will ensure that its publications survive.Converting to a digital format is a major challenge, particularly for a newspaper with a long history like South Town. Every aspect of the operation will be impacted, including the news department, advertising, and circulation. The electronic version of the paper will be much shorter, requiring layoffs in the newsroom. At the same time, new technical support staff will be hired.Alicia Pia has been assigned as the new publisher at South Town Press to oversee the transition. Pia has a long history in the newspaper business. She believes that journalism is more important than ever given recent attacks on the media. Alicia recently led the move to digital publishing at another of the company’s papers in the Midwest. That transition succeeded but at a high cost. Employees didn’t think they could make the change, which slowed the process, and some quit. Salespeople struggled to sell digital ads and the number of online subscriptions was low at first, though circulation eventually rebounded. Some of the initial digital editions of the paper crashed due to technical problems.Alicia wants to learn from her prior experience to ensure a smoother switch over at South Town Press. She believes that South Town employees have the ability to make the change but, like the staff at her last post, lack confidence in their ability to do so. She also knows that layoffs will initially lower employee morale.Pia takes a couple of days before arriving at South Town to develop a strategy for the transition. In addition to all the technical details, she gives careful thought to whom she needs to influence and what she wants to communicate to each group and individual. She knows she wants to boost the confidence of both the entire staff of 40 while setting a high standard for her leadership team made up of the news editor, information systems manager, circulation manager, and advertising manager. She wants all employees to know that they are doing important work that supports a greater cause—a free press. However, she is not sure how he should go about conveying these messages to her staff and team.

Sample Solution

), Page 314). Frowe, however, argues the idea of “just cause” based on “Sovereignty” which refers to the protection of political and territorial rights, along with human rights. In contemporary view, this view is more complicated to answer, given the rise of globalisation. Similarly, it is difficult to measure proportionality, particularly in war, because not only that there is an epistemic problem in calculating, but again today’s world has developed (Frowe (2011), Page 54-6). Furthermore, Vittola argues war is necessary, not only for defensive purposes, ‘since it is lawful to resist force with force,’ but also to fight against the unjust, an offensive war, nations which are not punished for acting unjustly towards its own people or have unjustly taken land from the home nation (Begby et al (2006b), Page 310&313); to “teach its enemies a lesson,” but mainly to achieve the aim of war. This validates Aristotle’s argument: ‘there must be war for the sake of peace (Aristotle (1996), Page 187). However, Frowe argues “self-defence” has a plurality of descriptions, seen in Chapter 1, showing that self-defence cannot always justify one’s actions. Even more problematic, is the case of self-defence in war, where two conflicting views are established: The Collectivists, a whole new theory and the Individualists, the continuation of the domestic theory of self-defence (Frowe (2011), Page 9& 29-34). More importantly, Frowe refutes Vittola’s view on vengeance because firstly it empowers the punisher’s authority, but also today’s world prevents this action between countries through legal bodies like the UN, since we have modernised into a relatively peaceful society (Frowe (2011), Page 80-1). Most importantly, Frowe further refutes Vittola through his claim that ‘right intention cannot be used as an excuse to wage war in response to anticipated wrong,’ suggesting we cannot just harm another just because they have done something unjust. Other factors need to be considered, for example, Proportionality. Thirdly, Vittola argues that war should be avoided (Begby et al (2006b), Page 332) and that we should proceed circumstances diplomatically. This is supported by the “last resort” stance in Frowe, where war should not be permitted unless all measures to seek diplomacy fails (Frowe (2011), Page 62). This means war shouldn’t be declared until one party has no choice but to declare war, in order to protect its territory and rights, the aim of war. However, we can also argue that the war can never be the last resort, given there is always a way to try to avoid it, like sanctions or appeasement, showing Vittola’s theory is flawed. Fourthly, Vittola questions upon whose authority can demand a declaration of war, where he implies any commonwealth can go to war, but more importantly, “the prince” where he has “the natural order” according to Augustine, and all authority is given to him. This is further supported by Aristotle’s Politics ((1996), Page 28): ‘a king is the natural superior of his subjects.’ However, he does later emphasise to put all faith in the prince is wrong and has consequences; a thorough examination of the cause of war is required along with the willingness to negotiate rival party (Begby et al (2006b), Page 312& 318). This is supported by the actions of Hitler are deemed unjustly. Also, in today’s world, wars are no longer fought only by states but also non-state actors like Al-Queda and ISIS, showing Vittola’s normative claim on authority is outdated. This is further supported by Frowe’s claim that the leader needs to represent the people’s interests, under legitimate authority, which links on to the fourth condition: Public declaration of war. Agreed with many, there must be an official

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