Gene-by-environment effects

Read about gene-by-environment effects (also called gene x environment or G X E) in the Champagne and Mashoodh (2009) article. The particular example you will examine is epigenetic programming due to variations in maternal care. Specifically, in rodent models, it was found that maternal behavior such as carefully licking and grooming the pups was tied to a decreased stress response and lower levels of exploration fear in the pups. Mothers that displayed low levels of pup licking and grooming had adult offspring with a heightened stress response. This study provided evidence that epigenetic changes can underlie the long-term impact of early life experiences.

For this Discussion, consider the personal and social implications of gene x environment interactions. Also consider other gene x environment interactions future research will be most likely to discover based on your introduction to this new topic.

Explain how epigenetics provides a new perspective on the nature versus nurture debate. Also, reference the Champagne and Mashoodh (2009) article, and provide an explanation of how the rat-nurturing example can further explain human parental behavior. In addition, explain the broader social implications of this type of research. Finally, share your prediction of and rationale for what other gene x environment interactions future research may discover.

Sample Solution

Google Earth tour examining Sea Level Rise

You are invited to take a Google Earth tour examining Sea Level Rise and the Fate of Coastal Cities (Links to an external site.), which includes short video animations. This will help you to visualize how much sea level rise will affect coastal communities under different future climate scenarios – one based on a 2 deg C temperature rise and the other based on a 4 deg C temperature rise.
Location : SanFransisco
1.What is the average elevation above sea level?
2.What is the projected sea level rise under a 2 deg C warmer scenario? Under a 4 deg C warmer scenario?
3.How many people live in areas that would be flooded in a future 2 deg C warmer? In a future 4 deg C warmer?
4.What areas/industries will be most threatened by sea level rise (e.g. government, business, agriculture, etc…?)
5.Are there any current mitigation measures in place to help prevent flooding? If so, what are they?
6.Based on historical storm records, what is the range of sea level rise due to storm surge?
7.What is one thing that surprised you about the Google Earth Visualization?,164.39811389,-10.6422799a,787298.47509228d,35y,166.67160529h,72.48516064t,0r/data=CjESLxIgNzJlM2QwZWU3NGMyMTFlODhjMWNiZjg2OTQ1ZTVlZWMiC3ZveV9wb2ludF

Sample Solution

Climate change is a threat multiplier since the beginning of the 21st century.

Argue for or against the assertion that climate change is a threat multiplier since the beginning of the 21st century. Your essay must define threat multiplier and climate change in the introduction of the essay. Also, use one topic addressed in the video or article (attachment below) as the theme of your essay, for example: climate change exacerbating social and political tensions in Syria that contributed to the civil war.


Sample Solution

National park

Choose a national park of particular interest to you; here is a list of all 58 of them: (Links to an external site.). What does Earth Science reveal about that national park through time? This research paper will provide you with an opportunity to learn more about a chosen park. In your report, be sure to cover the following topics:

The geography of your national park – where it is located on Earth, what the topography is like (major mountains, lakes, etc.), and what surface processes are currently shaping it (rivers, ocean waves, etc.)
The plate tectonic setting of your national park – where it is located relative to plate boundaries, what tectonic processes are active in your region (earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.)
The geologic story of your national park – what rocks and minerals are found there, and what stories they tell about how your park has changed over geologic time. (For instance, was it once the site of an ocean or sea? If so, what evidence is there for that, and when did it happen?)
The weather and climate of your national park – what the climate is like in your park, what extreme weather your park experiences, what effects of global climate change your park is already experiencing, what the projected impacts of climate change on your park may be—and what is currently being done, if anything, to address these challenges.

Sample Solution